Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 1
Formation of labor resources as a factor in the growth of the economic efficiency of the agro-industrial complex
The current stage of innovative development of the agricultural sector is characterized by trends in digitalization, activation of the introduction of artificial intelligence systems in the management of technological complexes in modern agricultural production and the formation of appropriate institutional factors that cause a change in the nature of human interaction and production resources. In the conditions of an institutional environment that ensures the introduction of information technologies, artificial intelligence into the activities of agricultural enterprises and the effective functioning of a person in the contour of modern innovative technological complexes, human capital acts as a special resource of agricultural formations, as a factor of innovative development of agriculture. The processes of reforming agriculture in the Republic of Tatarstan have led to the preservation of the production potential of agricultural enterprises and the entry into the trajectory of sustainable development. The formation of an appropriate institutional environment that ensures the effective functioning of labor resources, the use of a systematic approach in the management of the agro-industrial complex of the region, the measures taken by the state to support the agricultural sector in Tatarstan ensured the growth of economic efficiency of agricultural industries and ensured sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 2
The article analyzes the state and dynamics of internal migration of rural residents, which is a serious challenge in providing qualified personnel to enterprises of the regional fruit subcomplex. The purpose of the article is to propose a set of practical measures aimed at reducing the outflow of the population, the formation of motivation among young people to work in rural areas. The methodological basis of the study was the scientific works of domestic scientists on sustainable development of rural areas, staffing of agricultural enterprises. The data of the territorial body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Dagestan, analytical publications were used. Methods of statistical analysis are applied. The analysis of migration processes in three natural-territorial zones of the republic for the period 2010-2021 is carried out. An increase in the migration loss of the rural population of the republic was revealed, and even from areas provided with socio-economic infrastructure and developed agricultural production. The main reasons are: low standard and quality of life, lack of career prospects. The results of the state programs implemented in the region aimed at the integrated development of rural areas are disclosed. It was revealed that, despite the successful implementation of program activities, large-scale and systemic changes do not occur. There is still a high level of unemployment, unsettled life, poor quality of educational and medical services, and lack of leisure facilities. It is established that in addition to the development of the social sphere, modernization of agro-industrial enterprises is important. The directions of attracting young people to rural areas are shown, which include: career guidance, dissemination of information about the positive experience of implementing investment projects in the industry, the development of tourism. The results of the article can be used to expand other studies on this problem.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 3
The article considers the level (depth) of specialization and localization of agricultural production in a branch cut in the Russian Federation for 1990-2020 years. It is done on the basis of the complex approach. It shows that the specialization of production, including the agrarian sector, is an objective process caused by the innate desire of people to exchange that greatly increases labor productivity. It is marked that specialization in the agrarian sector is weakly expressed during all the analyzed period of 1991-2020, which has a moderate positive influence on development effect of the sector from the point of view of produced gross output and its efficiency from the point of view of per capita production. It is confirmed that the growth of the agrarian sector is not concentrated in all categories of farms and the increase of production marketability has a positive effect on the gross production in the sector and the growth of efficiency in the use of basic economic resources. The article shows changes in localization coefficients of crop and livestock development by federal districts in Russia, with analysis of changes in each territory.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 4
Priorities of investment attractiveness of the agro-industrial complex: the current state at the regional level
The purpose of the study: substantiation of economic tools to determine the effectiveness of investment inflows to the region. Market competition in the face of new challenges of the external environment and the turbulence of the economy implies the need to develop new markets for agricultural products, which would be focused on the ratio of not only demand from consumers, but also supply from agricultural producers. At the same time, there is a need for large investments in the acquisition of modern machinery and equipment, to ensure the process of expanded production, as well as investments in capital as additional sources of financing the production process. For the sustainable development of rural areas, a scenario approach is proposed, based on the use of the proposed author's approach, it makes it possible to determine the return on investment in the industry and the prospective opportunities for achieving competitiveness by means of innovative development in the sub-sectors of the agro-industrial complex. It is also important to identify promising areas of investment policy.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 5
Organizational and economic mechanism of adaptation of agribusiness entities to new business conditions
The development of the organizational and economic mechanism for the functioning of various forms of agro-management is especially relevant in the new conditions of agribusiness, characterized by the intensification of integration processes, the formation and development of new technological structures, the deterioration of trade and economic interaction between Russia and foreign partners against the background of the aggravation of the geopolitical situation and the tightening of anti-Russian sanctions. The organizational and economic mechanism for the adaptation of agribusiness entities to new business conditions is considered by the author as a set of organizational and economic means and methods aimed at the activities of various forms of agricultural management at the federal, regional, municipal and economic levels of management in order to increase the efficiency of their activities, solve problems arising in the process of its implementation, increased technical and technological equipment and increased involvement in integration processes. The key principles of building an adaptation mechanism are: focus, complexity, innovation, consistency, scientific, adaptability, perspective, efficiency, parity, consistency, and realization of potential. The areas of improvement of organizational and economic elements of the mechanism include: stimulating credit, deepening and expanding integration with potential purchasing countries of Russian agricultural products, information, consulting and organizational support for agricultural goods producers, increasing the efficiency of processing products, developing logistics infrastructure, introducing progressive technologies into production and general growth of technical and technological equipment of the agricultural industry, etc. The author proposed a scheme for the joint use of agricultural machinery by farmers, determined the conditions necessary for forging an effective system of their information and consulting support, and formulated other recommendations for improving certain elements of the organizational and economic mechanism for adapting agribusiness entities to new business conditions.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 6
Agricultural cooperatives and their role in the formation of specialized high-tech zones for the production of agricultural products
The spatial organization of agriculture traditionally contributes to the efficient placement, deepening of specialization and concentration of production. Optimization of spatial development of agriculture is associated with its effective management in each region of the country. It is most fully implemented in the formation and development of specialized high-tech zones for the production of agricultural products on the basis of cooperation. Agricultural cooperatives ensure the growth of incomes of commodity producers and workers in the area where they live, and are aimed at implementing long-term plans. In accordance with the current legislation, federal and departmental projects, agricultural cooperatives are formally granted the most favored nation regime. The growth in the number of consumer cooperatives is largely justified precisely by the possibility of receiving support from federal and regional budgets. The number of agricultural production cooperatives has significantly decreased. Domestic and foreign experience confirms the prospects of cooperation as a form of management for the sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas. The expansion of the sphere of activity of production and consumer cooperatives is limited by a number of factors, in particular, the issues of land shares are insufficiently regulated, modern legal norms do not fully reflect the specifics of cooperation. The development of cooperation in agriculture is associated with the growth of state support, the formation of cooperative consciousness, new organizational models of cooperatives.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 7
Conceptual bases for increasing the innovative and investment attractiveness of agriculture in a municipal district
The article attempts to consider the conceptual foundations for increasing the innovative and investment attractiveness of agriculture in a municipal district, based on the ideas of the knowledge economy, where the costs of science and the results of intellectual activity play a significant role in creating innovations arising under the influence of knowledge flows. Based on the official data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation and its territorial body for the Novosibirsk Region, data from the registers of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "State Variety Commission" and the Federal Institute of Industrial Property as factors influencing the level of innovative activity of farmers, were considered: the state of agricultural science, the activity of patent holders and the level of use of breeding achievements in the Novosibirsk region. An analysis of the structure of internal costs for research and development by funding sources showed that the costs of agricultural science in the Novosibirsk Region for the period 2017-2021 decreased mainly due to a sharp reduction in the source of "own costs". Reducing the cost of agricultural science in the Novosibirsk region means a reduction in the amount of knowledge gained and opportunities to create innovations that arise under the influence of the flow of this knowledge, which ultimately reduces the innovation and investment potential of rural municipal areas that are in close geographical proximity to the centers of Siberian agricultural science . Features of the formation of the institution of intellectual property in agriculture were studied on the basis of data on the number patents of selection achievements and their use in the Novosibirsk region. The analysis showed a low demand for Novosibirsk patents in the region and the lack of mutual interest of science and farmers in concluding license agreements and maintaining them. A clustering of rural municipal districts of the Novosibirsk region according to their innovative and investment attractiveness is proposed.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 8
Vertical integration and intersectoral development of agro-industrial production in the Irkutsk region
Modern agro-industrial production is at a stage of development at which there is a change in the model of social production through an increase in the share of production of products of deep processing and a decrease in the share of production of agricultural raw materials. There is a transition to a post-industrial model of the development of society. One of the main tasks in this regard is to increase the efficiency of intersectoral development, within which it is necessary to maintain a balance in the development of agro-industrial production. The main factors stimulating manufacturers to develop other areas, in our opinion, are internal, such as the search for the most effective ways to sell products with high profitability of sales, the implementation of their own development investment programs, and external, for example, the implementation of government support programs. All this contributes to the development of vertical integration processes, which become a necessary condition for the intersectoral development of agro-industrial production. In this regard, there is a need to focus efforts on further effective intersectoral development of such areas as infrastructure (creation of conditions for storage, transportation and delivery of products to the end consumer in the shortest possible time and with an appropriate level of quality), as well as the scientific sphere (creation of conditions for the development of scientific developments in the field of production of raw materials, their processing, packaging, disposal and recycling). It is necessary to direct all efforts to the improvement of technologies, mechanization and automation of production processes in all areas in order to reduce losses, increase the degree of workload of tools and objects of labor and reduce the negative impact on the environment.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 9
The article is devoted to assessing the dynamics of the rating of the regions of the Russian Federation by livestock. The purpose of the study was to determine the sustainability of the positions occupied by the regions in terms of livestock in 1990 and 2022, as the growth rate of cattle affected the change in the rating of regions. Assess how high the growth rate of cattle affected the change in the rating of regions. Methods of logical analysis and statistical data processing were used as research methods. The assessment of the stability of the ranks of the region was carried out using the Spearman coefficient. The assessment of rank correlations showed that the high positions of the region in the number of cattle in 1990 affect the position of the region in 2022, the rank correlation coefficient was 0.74. Also, the assessment of rank correlations indicates that the position of the region in 2022 depends on the rank of the region in terms of the growth rate of the livestock. At the same time, the assessment of the strength of the connection between the ranks of regions calculated by the livestock for 1990 and the ranks of regions by the growth rates of the livestock in 2022 compared to 1990 for various categories of farms showed that for all categories of farms the consistency of ranks is 0.12, the indicator is not statistically significant at the level of 0.05. The regions, which in 1990 occupied high places in the ranking of regions of the Russian Federation for cattle livestock, retain their rather high positions, at the same time; the growth rate of cattle livestock does not affect the preservation of these positions. Those regions that in 1990 occupied not very high positions among the regions of the Russian Federation in the number of cattle, due to the high growth rate (or the safety of the cattle) were able to significantly change their positions in 2022.
Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 10
Factors of organic products market formation in the northwestern federal district of the Russian Federation
The article identifies the factors constraining and stimulating organic agricultural production and, as a consequence, the development of the organic products market at the regional level, and classifies them according to the nature of the impact. For the purpose of a more in-depth analysis of obstacles to organic production, a questionnaire survey of 32 farmers of the Leningrad region was conducted, which showed that with state support and subsidizing of certification costs, 78% of the respondents are ready to engage in organic agriculture. It is revealed that the existing measures of state support for organic farming in the region are not enough, a more significant increase in the number of organic producers would be facilitated by the redistribution of part of the subsidies allocated from the federal and regional budgets from conventional agricultural production to organic, as well as the reduction of the time gap to reimburse farmers for certification costs. In general, the potential for the development of organic agricultural production in the region exists due to the presence of a large number of unused agricultural lands that can be certified for organic farming in an accelerated manner, which in the future can create a good basis for the formation of organic dairy farming.