Transmission of Financial Contagion from the Energy Market to the Food Market during the Pandemic

The objective of the study is to identify the presence of contamination effects from the raw materials markets of energy resources (oil and gas) to the markets of agricultural goods, their quantitative assessment. The article provides a brief overview of foreign publications that investigate the dependencies between agricultural and energy markets, accompanied by the spread of shock from oil/gas markets to food markets. The analysis of the scientific literature allowed us to identify two main directions of studying the links between the agricultural and energy markets: the "concomitant movement" of economic indicators and the effects of financial contagion, i.e. the transmission of shocks through different channels from the source to the recipient. The result of the practical part of the study was quantitative assessments of the effects of infection from energy markets (oil, gas) to food markets during the COVID-19 pandemic. For such an assessment, special econometric methods were used: comparison of correlations between energy resources and goods in pre-crisis and crisis periods, coskewness test and Forbes-Rigobon test. Previously, fluctuations in yields on the energy market and the average yield on agricultural goods were considered. Significant fluctuations in oil and gas yields were revealed in the first months of the crisis, which subsequently decreased. Based on the correlation analysis of futures yields for raw materials and agricultural commodities in the pre-crisis and crisis periods, assumptions were formulated about the contamination of sugar, pork, wheat and soybeans markets from the gas market. The Forbes-Rigobon test recorded infection in the "gas®sugar" and "gas®wheat" bundles, and the distribution coskewness test – in the "gas® coffee", "oil ® corn", "oil ®oats" bundles.

Technological Sovereignty and Innovative Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises as the Basis for Food Security in Russia

The purpose of the article is to develop an approach to ensuring food security in Russia on the basis of technological sovereignty and innovative activity of agricultural organizations. With the help of regression analysis, the article clarifies the causal relationships of the influence of factors of technological sovereignty and innovative activity of agricultural organizations on the food security of Russia. The key conclusion is that technological sovereignty and innovative activity of agricultural organizations form the basis of Russia's food security, but need flexible management. Not all commonly recognized factors of technology and innovation support food security. Factors for the development of advanced production technologies and the costs of innovative activities of agricultural organizations need to adjust management, for which appropriate recommendations are proposed. The theoretical significance of the findings is the rationale for the conflicting effects of technology factors and innovation on food security. Modern Russia needs technological sovereignty in the field of applied technologies, directly demanded by agricultural organizations. The innovative activity of these organizations also needs highly efficient targeted funding. The practical significance of the author's conclusions and recommendations is associated with the fact that they support the practical implementation of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030.

Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Justifying the Indicator of Fair Employees Wages of Agricultural Organizations

One of the main tasks of the modern agrarian policy of the state is to increase the wages of agricultural workers to a decent level, which will ensure the growth of the well-being of rural residents and overcome poverty in the countryside. In recent years, despite the positive dynamics of the main indicators of the development of the industry’ and wage growth, the /eve/ of wages in the agrarian sector of Russia remains one of the lowest among other types of economic activity’. This article analyzes the impact of revenue, as one of the indicators of decent work, on the wage fund in agricultural enterprises on the example of the Saratov region. A comparative analysis of the growth of labour productivity’ and wages of agricultural workers is presented. Based on the results of the correlation-regression analysis, conclusions were drawn about the close dependence of the /eve/ of remuneration of farmers on the revenue received by employers. An assessment of the structure of the wage fund of agricultural enterprises is given. It is indicated on the sectoral differentiation of the /eve/ of wages among workers in the agricultural sector of the economy. The obtained results of the grouping of agricultural enterprises in the region by the amount of revenue per employee can be used by managers and specialists in the development of measures aimed at improving socio-economic and labour relations in the region's agriculture. Agricultural producers are invited to form a payroll fund taking into account the proceeds received, which will increase the level of wages of workers and at the same time effectively conduct agricultural production.

Approaches to the Formation of Scientific Foundations for the Digitalization of Peasant (Farm) Farms in the Leningrad Region

Digitalization of activities for farmers is currently a necessary condition for maintaining competitiveness. Many Russian scientists are engaged in research on the digitalization of the agricultural sector of the economy, considering this process in various aspects. For the rapid introduction of digital technologies in agriculture, especially in small-scale farms, it is necessary to develop a scientifically based regional program. The article suggests approaches to the formation of scientific foundations of digitalization of peasant (farmer) economy (P(F)E) on the example of farms in the Leningrad region. The contribution of farmers to the production of the main types of agricultural products in the region is analyzed. The mechanism of digitalization of P(F)E is presented, which allows demonstrating the process of necessary changes. An assessment of the reasons slowing down the introduction of digital technologies in P(F)E of the Leningrad region allowed us to come to the conclusion that substantial state support for this process is needed, which will return to the state in the form of taxes after increasing labour productivity in P(F)E, will ensure food security and reduce social tension. To conduct the research, the methods of questioning and interviewing, socio-economic analysis, graphic and abstract-logical were used. The survey conducted showed the demand for various types of state support among farmers, therefore, the adoption and implementation of a specialized regional program for the development of digitalization will accelerate the digital transformation of both the industry as a whole and the farming sector in particular, which will favourably affect the development of rural areas, increase the prestige of farming, attract citizens who own digital technologies to the village not only as agro tourists, but also for permanent residence.

Functions and Factors for the Development of the Food Market in the Region Food Supply

The study of the functions and factors of the development of the food market is important for the formation of an effective system of economic and institutional relations on it. The purpose of the work is to identify the functions and factors affecting the development of the food market in the food supply of the region. The authors propose the basic structure of the food supply system, which includes two subsystems - the subsystem of the food complex and the subsystem of the food market, where the infrastructure acts as a link between them. The authors propose a formula for the demand for food products, taking into account the number of groups of food products, the demand and price for a group of food products and goods of other groups, the price of non-food consumer goods and services, the number and income of the population, consumer preferences of food. The authors have determined that the relations that develop in the process of production, distribution, exchange and consumption of food perform informational, intermediary, price-forming and regulatory functions. It is determined that the basis for the development of the agro-food market in Siberia is formed by agricultural products and food products, the supply of which to the market in volume and assortment depends on the influence of factors of the external and internal environment. It is proposed to divide the environment of the subject's existence in the agri-food market into "near" and "far" environments.

Comparative Analysis of the Distribution of Personal Subsidiary Farms in the Context of the Regions of the Russian Federation (Based On the Materials of Agricultural Micro-Census in 2021)

One way to capture information that reflects changes in the agricultural sector is through agricultural micro-crossing, which takes place every five years. In 2021, another agricultural micro transference was carried out, which covered about 42 thousand agricultural organizations, about 145 thousand peasant farms and individual entrepreneurs of the country, as well as about 83 thousand non-profit to-variations and more than 16.5 million personal subsidiary farms. During the agricultural micro-registration, two methods were used: for agricultural organizations, peasant (farm) farms and individual entrepreneurs - by self-filling out electronic census forms by respondents through the Rosstat web collection system, for personal subsidiary and other individual farms of citizens and non-profit associations - by interviewing respondents by census takers using electronic census forms on tablet computers. The sebaceous-economic micro transmitter of 2021 made it possible to obtain official statistical information about the structural changes in the private household. In addition, the agricultural micro transmitter of 2021 made an adjustment to the counting factors of the unattended part of the population's farms in the inter-correspondence period and updated the general collections of agricultural producers to improve the quality of the data of the current statistical observation in the inter-correspondence period. Thus, the agricultural micro transmitter of 2021 made it possible to collect the necessary data not only for regulating the agricultural economy, but also for conducting an international comparison on key indicators.

Issue № 12, December 2022, article № 10

Methodology For Assessing Poverty In Russia In The Context Of Rural-Urban Comparisons

The article presents the evolution of methods for assessing the spread of poverty in Russia from the pre-reform period to the present day. The differentiation of the material well-being of the population and the share of the poor in rural and urban areas is analyzed using various methodological approaches to their measurement. It is noted that the assessment of the level of poverty by total income somewhat reduces the rural-urban gap in this indicator. However, even with this measurement, as well as the use of non-monetary methods, it is obvious that the Russian poor are concentrated in rural areas. Based on an analysis of the new procedure for calculating the poverty border introduced in Russia from 2021, based on the median per capita cash income in the country and the percentage standard from its value, as well as the differences between this order and the methodology used in the EU, it was concluded that these borders are underestimated and statistically reduce the level of poverty in the country. It is justified that the transition from assessing the need for monetary income to a comprehensive assessment, including restrictions on the size of movable and immovable property, savings, leads to a significant reduction in the number of recipients of state social assistance, especially in rural areas. The main directions for improving the methodology and practice of accounting for the number of the poor, taking into account settlement and regional characteristics, are outlined in order to better cover the poor with state support and improve the effectiveness of policies to reduce poverty in the country and overcome its localization in rural areas.