Factors determining approaches to forecasting food supply in the Russian Federation

Food supply to the population plays an important role in the socio-economic system of any state. Being one of the basic physiological needs of a person, the provision of an individual with a sufficient amount of consumed food is one of the cornerstones of social well-being, including that subjectively felt by the population. At the same time, it is important to note that at the present stage of technological development, approaches to ensuring the sufficiency of food consumption require revision. On the one hand, the development of the biotechnological industry in many countries makes it possible to significantly increase the total volume of food production and provide people with a quantitatively sufficient and even excess amount of food. At the same time, the use of genetically modified products, trans fats, as well as cheap and low-quality raw materials such as palm oil, etc., creates a situation of significant hidden domestic social stratification. Of course, with the same calorie intake, the difference in the standard of living, social well-being and health of people who consume farm steak made from marbled beef as a source of protein, and those who replace it with cutlets made from cricket paste, will be very noticeable. There is also a significant stratification in the volume and quality of food consumed between states. These circumstances indicate the need to forecast food supply based on an integrated approach, including not only the use of economic and statistical processing of data from previous periods, but also the analysis of other indicators that influence this area. The most significant groups of factors, in our opinion, include: climatic, resource, demographic, technological and international economic. To do this, it is necessary to use foresight analysis, as well as methods for identifying weak signals, joker events and similar techniques. We believe that only a comprehensive analysis of production dynamics, taking into account the designated groups of factors, can give a fairly objective picture of the forecast for the state's food supply.

Modernization of the agrarian university model based on modern trends in the development of the agro-industrial complex

This study is devoted to solving modern problems of higher agricultural education. This is due to several circumstances. On the one hand, at present, the issue of ensuring food security is very important for our country, and it is the agricultural sector that is the basis for ensuring it. Modern trends in the development of the agro-industrial complex largely determine the competencies that graduates of agricultural universities should own, and the model of agricultural education should be formed in an inextricable relationship with the model of ensuring economic security. This is due to the fact that geopolitical processes and sanctions pressure are unpredictable in terms of the duration of the course. On the other hand, a persistent stereotype has developed in society that agriculture is not interesting, not fashionable; there is little innovation in it. And accordingly, young people are reluctant to study and work in this industry. However, modern agriculture is a very innovative and exciting activity. The purpose of the study is to identify the development vectors of higher agrarian education based on the analysis of modern agricultural development trends, and to propose an optimal sustainable model of an agrarian university that meets the current economic conditions. The article structurally contains a brief literary review on the problems of higher agrarian education and the transformation of agricultural production. Modern development trends characteristic of the agro-industrial complex of Russia have been identified and analyzed, the needs of the agro-industrial industry in personnel have been analyzed, and the level of digitalization of agriculture has been assessed. Key areas for the modernization of higher education were identified and the author’s model of an agricultural university with a dynamic organizational structure in the system of kaizen transformations was developed. The article is aimed at managers in the fields of higher agricultural education and agricultural production, responsible for the transformation of this industry, as well as for all researchers of the problems of higher education.

Justification of the amount of labor costs for employees in small forms of management

The modern agricultural sector of the Russian economy is characterized by low wages relative to most other industries and types of economic activity. For dynamically developing domestic agribusiness, there is a need to develop scientific and methodological approaches to justify the costs of paying employees, allowing them to provide them with a decent level of wages while maintaining the profitability of business entities. This article demonstrates the results of a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the share of labor costs in the total costs of farmers on the earnings of employees. A comparative assessment of the efficiency of using labor costs in agricultural organizations and farms is provided. Using the example of the Saratov region, the author's methodological approaches to substantiating at the regional level the standard for the minimum share of costs for wages of employees in the structure of total expenses of farms are demonstrated. The obtained results of groupings of individual enterprise Head of peasant farm inregion by the size of the average monthly wage and by the share of labor costs in the structure of total expenses clearly demonstrate the reasons for the low level of wages of farmers. In order to ensure a decent level of wages for employees, the authors have developed and proposed for use an algorithm for planning labor costs on farms, taking into account the minimum share of labor costs established at the regional level in the structure of the total expenses of an economic entity.

Role and impact of agricultural cooperation on agricultural development in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

The article considers agricultural cooperation as one of the key forms of management in agriculture in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Highlighted problems which hindering the development of agricultural cooperation. Presented analysis of the current state of agricultural cooperatives according to the main indicators. Particular attention is paid to state support, in particular, for agricultural consumer cooperatives. About a third of the financial resources of the state program for the development of agriculture in the republic is directed to the development and support of agricultural cooperation, in particular consumer cooperation - a quarter of the allocated funds. This makes the development of agricultural cooperation the main tool to support small forms of management in rural areas, which in turn leads to the fact that the development of agricultural cooperation is the main tool to support agriculture. This comes from the fact that in Yakutia there is a relatively high proportion of the rural population and an atypical structure of agricultural production, where the production of small forms of management strongly predominates over the production of agricultural organizations and is generally ahead of other indicators. Therefore, this is a formal role, but in fact, agricultural consumer cooperation has literally become a measure for providing state support and fulfills this role, pushing the very essence of cooperation somewhere into the background, as evidenced by a small share of participation in agriculture, without taking into account the amount of allocated funds.

Assessment of socio-economic parameters of the state of agricultural consumer cooperation

Small forms of management are the basis for the development of agriculture and rural areas. The results of the Agricultural Micro-Census of 2021 showed a significant reduction in the number of small enterprises and farms. The decrease in the number of producers is noted precisely among small farms. At the same time, there is a tendency to increase the area per small enterprise and farm, which indicates the processes of concentration in agriculture. But small forms of management have low marketability indicators compared to large commodity producers, low availability of facilities for storing agricultural products. They are only formally equal market participants. In order to strengthen market positions, small business entities should use the reserves of cooperation as the main tool that ensures the increase in the efficiency of their economic activities. The institutional conditions created for agricultural cooperation (the law on agricultural cooperation, state support) did not ensure the mass participation of small business entities in agricultural cooperatives. In our opinion, the increase in involvement in agricultural consumer cooperatives is associated with the adjustment of the conditions of state support for agricultural consumer cooperatives, ensuring the priority of cooperation in state agrarian policy, strengthening the role of competence centers in the field of agricultural cooperation and support for farmers and municipalities in cultivating and transforming households into high-quality farms, training in the technology of creating cooperatives and popularization of cooperation in agriculture.

Issue № 2, February 2024, article № 10

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as one of the main tools of the digital transformation of the agro-industrial complex

Maximum efficiency in agriculture can be achieved only by having up-to-date and accurate information about the area, topography, and specifics of the soil of the fields. The simplest and most effective way to obtain such information is to use drones. Drones in Russian agriculture are one of the most promising areas for which demand is actively growing. UAVs combine information and communication technologies, robots, artificial intelligence, big data and the Internet of Things. Agricultural drones have great capabilities and their use has expanded in all areas of agriculture, including spraying pesticides and fertilizers, sowing seeds, as well as growth assessment and mapping. Farmers use two types of UAVs, differing in their design and flight characteristics – aircraft type and copter. Today, drones are available not only to large agricultural holdings and complexes, but also to medium-sized and even small farms. For more active development of drones in the Russian market, regulatory barriers were lowered and special programs for training professional operators of small UAVs appeared. The market for agricultural UAVs is expected to continue to grow with appropriate technologies. The article examines the latest trends and areas of application of advanced technologies related to agricultural UAVs, control technologies, equipment and developments. The options for using UAVs in real agricultural conditions are given. The use of drones helps not only to conduct a detailed analysis of the conditions affecting the quality of vegetation, but also to optimize production.