Яндекс.Метрика

On the issue of efficiency of agricultural investment

Ensuring the sustainable development of the country's agri-food system requires a significant increase in investment not only in agriculture, but also in the modernization of the food and processing industries, the development of rural areas, environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. An analysis of investment in the agricultural sector indicates the instability of the dynamics of investments in fixed assets, a decrease in the share of investments in agriculture in the total investments in the country's economy to 3.7%, the food industry - to 1.3%, investments aimed at environmental protection in agriculture - to 0.8%. There is a significant differentiation of the regions of the Russian Federation in terms of investment concentration. The limited volume of investments imposes increased requirements for their effective implementation in the agro-industrial production, while the analysis of the effectiveness of investments should be carried out in a comprehensive manner with the assessment of not only the efficiency of investment in production, but also the assessment of the innovativeness of investments, the impact of investments on the development of rural areas and the preservation of the environment. The need to increase investments in the development of agricultural technologies on an innovative basis by expanding the practice of venture investment and the use of PPP (MPP) mechanisms in the modernization of agro-industrial production, as well as investments aimed at environmental protection in the agricultural sector, and sustainable socio-economic development of the village, taking into account the principles of responsible investment, is substantiated.

Problems and ways to improve the efficiency of income distribution mechanisms from the use of domestic breeding achievements in crop production

The article contains the results of the analysis of the actual provision of Russian agriculture with seeds of domestic selection of the most important agricultural crops. The main legal, organizational and economic problems hindering the implementation of import substitution in the domestic seed market have been identified. The processes of distribution of income and expenses in the creation and use of domestic breeding achievements in crop production are systematized. Recommendations have been developed to improve certain parameters of the mechanism of their distribution among participants in breeding and seed-growing activities. The analysis of domestic and foreign experience of state regulation in the field of creation, registration and use of varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops is carried out. The directions of increasing the efficiency of the mechanism of payment of remuneration to breeders for the use of reproductive seeds in crop production for the purpose of additional financing of investments in the development of the national selection system are substantiated. The analysis of the current practice of using new varieties and hybrids in Russian agriculture is carried out and recommendations for its improvement are proposed. It is established that when improving pricing for breeding achievements in crop production, more attention should be paid to the development of a profitable approach, in which the amount of remuneration to breeders for new varieties and hybrids should be determined taking into account the additional income of agricultural producers from their use. Recommendations in the field of customs regulation and state support of Russian breeding are given. The results obtained in the course of the study are compared with the results of research in a similar subject area published in leading periodicals.

Methodological maintenance of state support for agriculture

The generally recognized successes of Russian agriculture in recent years are largely due to the comprehensive support of the state for social, production, environmental, information and other areas of activity in rural areas. At the same time, the effectiveness of existing directions and forms of government support must be considered through the prism of organic connections and positive changes in all subsystems of rural areas. The objective and obvious interconnection of all forms of life activity is often not taken into account when organizing the budget process in rural areas. Cash flows from various sources are poorly linked to each other in terms of functional purpose and time of allocation, are indirect in nature, and are carried out by many ministries and departments in the absence of a comprehensive methodology for the formation and use of a consolidated budget. In such a situation, the synergistic effect of the allocated funds for the development of territorial entities is reduced, and when assessing its level, many socio-economic indicators are used, often contradicting each other. And if, for the above reasons, between the links of, say, a single chain “demographics, roads, schools, jobs, etc.” critical disproportions arise, then one can only argue about the extent of the decline of villages and villages, from the outflow of labor and work in progress, loss of income, etc. Similar consequences occur in the absence of proper compliance in financing the production of perishable agricultural products and creating a base for their storage and processing. It is necessary to streamline the financial support of multifunctional events by giving special powers to, say, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. In addition, in the State Program it is important to establish boundary values in the volume of subsidies to achieve each strategic goal, thereby emphasizing the interconnection and priority areas in the use of resources to solve specific problems.

Issue № 11, November 2023, article № 10

Innovative development of the grain complex of Siberia: tasks, conditions, features of the modern stage

The dynamics of innovative processes in agriculture is largely determined by the specifics of the tasks facing the industry at various stages of its development, as well as the external environment in which this industry has to function. These factors influence the choice of types and types of applied innovations, their sources, efficiency and timing of development, which does not exclude the need for rational organization of the innovation activity itself – training, formation of innovation infrastructure, improving the interaction of innovators, etc. The latter is especially important today, when, in the context of increased sanctions, the possibilities of applying catch-up innovations are sharply limited. Now it is necessary to develop original domestic innovative projects of a fundamental nature, using the achievements of genetics, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, which the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2025 and other similar documents are aimed at. In the grain complex, the problem of innovations of a basic nature is also quite acute. However, here the achievements of domestic agricultural science still play a key role in the development of the innovation process. Suffice it to recall that the varieties of our own selection for basic grain crops account for 70-90%, which is significantly higher than for other types of crop production. Taking into account the tasks solved in this article, it is important to say that the main producers of mineral fertilizers and mineral fertilizers do not just sell their products, but also develop recommendations for their use, essentially offering options for innovative technologies that take into account natural and other production features in specific agricultural enterprises. For this purpose, special trade and service networks are being created, with highly qualified specialists, experienced fields, etc. All this allows farmers to choose different options for growing grain and other products. The study shows that the choice of intensive technology options is significantly influenced by the price level in the grain market.

Issue № 11, November 2023, article № 11

The main directions of resource saving at food industry enterprises in the context of "Industry 4.0"

Changing the socio-economic structure requires an innovative approach to optimizing production processes. This aspect affects not only the reorientation of the strategy in technological approaches, but also the transformation of the ideological thinking of the personnel potential. The solution of multivariate models aimed at resource conservation and the choice of the most promising ones that allow a positive impact on production efficiency indicators comes to the fore. The implementation of these tasks is facilitated by the transportability of the digital space at all stages of production systems. The potential resource-saving opportunities in the transition to industry 4.0 are most clearly manifested in the industrial sector. Analytical studies conducted at food industry enterprises indicate the need to form a trajectory for the development of digitalization. The article presents the dynamics of the use of the average annual production capacity of organizations for the production of certain types of products. The composition of the resource potential of food industry enterprises has been determined. The balance of energy resources in food production is given. The stages of the evolutionary development of food industry enterprises are considered. Substantiation of the possibility of alternative use of resource saving and automation trend in the context of "Industry 4.0". The main elements of the new industrial model are presented.

Issue № 11, November 2023, article № 12

The problems of provision of agricultural organizations with new generation machinery in Verhnevolzhsky zone

The article is devoted the problems of provision of agricultural organizations with new generation machinery in Verhnevolzhsky region, that are aggravated in the conditions, when the sanction pressing to Russian Federation from “collective West” is intensified. In the article analysis presents about the provision of agricultural organizations, functioning in the Verhnevolzhie, by machinery, as well as the structure of the machine and tractor park, degree it’s depreciation and share of domestic production machinery. In the work the following methods were used: economic and statistic method, retrospective, comparative and structural analysis. The sources of information were science literature, materials of Federal state statistics service, report of Agriculture and food Department of Vladimir region, questioning to specialists of agricultural and dealer organizations. The main results are: 1) in all regions of Verhnevolzhsky zone in the 2021, compared with 2010, number of tractors per 1000 hectares of arable land was decreased significantly (on average by 45%); the provision of tractors may be estimated as extremely low; 2) loading of cereals area per 1 harvester-combine was increased over 11 years in all regions of Verhnevolzhie, however it is lower, compared with average size on country in whole; 3) energy capacities decreased from 2010 to 2021, excepting Vladimir region; 4) degree of the fixed assets depreciation in agriculture, forestry, fishing and fish farming in Verhnevolzhie is higher than in RF in whole; 5) the physical and moral depreciation of the tractor and combine park of agricultural producers was revealed in Vladimir region; 6) share of domestic machinery in the structure of machine and tractor park in the region is high enough in whole, however in the group of modern machinery (with service time 1-10 years) this share is significantly lower. This shows that mainly machinery of foreign production was received to balance of agricultural producers in last years; 7) the conducted questioning of specialists of the agricultural and dealer organizations showed the absence of critical risk in the provision of agricultural producers by agricultural machinery in relation to the sanction pressing to national economic.

Formation of labor resources as a factor in the growth of the economic efficiency of the agro-industrial complex

The current stage of innovative development of the agricultural sector is characterized by trends in digitalization, activation of the introduction of artificial intelligence systems in the management of technological complexes in modern agricultural production and the formation of appropriate institutional factors that cause a change in the nature of human interaction and production resources. In the conditions of an institutional environment that ensures the introduction of information technologies, artificial intelligence into the activities of agricultural enterprises and the effective functioning of a person in the contour of modern innovative technological complexes, human capital acts as a special resource of agricultural formations, as a factor of innovative development of agriculture. The processes of reforming agriculture in the Republic of Tatarstan have led to the preservation of the production potential of agricultural enterprises and the entry into the trajectory of sustainable development. The formation of an appropriate institutional environment that ensures the effective functioning of labor resources, the use of a systematic approach in the management of the agro-industrial complex of the region, the measures taken by the state to support the agricultural sector in Tatarstan ensured the growth of economic efficiency of agricultural industries and ensured sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.

Problems of staffing of enterprises of the fruit subcomplex of Dagestan

The article analyzes the state and dynamics of internal migration of rural residents, which is a serious challenge in providing qualified personnel to enterprises of the regional fruit subcomplex. The purpose of the article is to propose a set of practical measures aimed at reducing the outflow of the population, the formation of motivation among young people to work in rural areas. The methodological basis of the study was the scientific works of domestic scientists on sustainable development of rural areas, staffing of agricultural enterprises. The data of the territorial body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Dagestan, analytical publications were used. Methods of statistical analysis are applied. The analysis of migration processes in three natural-territorial zones of the republic for the period 2010-2021 is carried out. An increase in the migration loss of the rural population of the republic was revealed, and even from areas provided with socio-economic infrastructure and developed agricultural production. The main reasons are: low standard and quality of life, lack of career prospects. The results of the state programs implemented in the region aimed at the integrated development of rural areas are disclosed. It was revealed that, despite the successful implementation of program activities, large-scale and systemic changes do not occur. There is still a high level of unemployment, unsettled life, poor quality of educational and medical services, and lack of leisure facilities. It is established that in addition to the development of the social sphere, modernization of agro-industrial enterprises is important. The directions of attracting young people to rural areas are shown, which include: career guidance, dissemination of information about the positive experience of implementing investment projects in the industry, the development of tourism. The results of the article can be used to expand other studies on this problem.