Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 11

Retrospective analysis of economic development in rural territories as a forecasting tool: the case of the Republic of Crimea

Theory, methodology and practice of trends and patterns studying in the development of the economy of rural areas, are at the stage of comprehension, as well as the justification of promising directions for their development. The aim of this study is to identify promising directions for the development of the economy of rural areas of the Republic of Crimea on the scientific basis of conducting a retrospective analysis for a period of more than one hundred and twenty-five years. The methodological basis of the study was a set of scientific concepts, fundamental provisions of the regional economy, which also includes knowledge of rural areas. The research methodology is based on the approaches of formalization, systematization and bivariate approach, content analysis, as well as methods of analogies, system-structural, system-functional, comparative-analytical, historical. The main results of the study are: collection and systematization of empirical material on the development of rural areas of Crimea over a long retrospective period of more than 125 years (from the end of the 19th century to the present); identification of key factors and conditions for the development of the economy of rural areas of Crimea, with justification for the predominance of the institutional group among them; substantiation of the “genetic code for the development of the Crimean Peninsula, which is based on agricultural production based on the use of unique natural resources and conditions; forecasting the main trends in the development of the economy of rural areas of Crimea, which will be based on the predominant process of diversification in the direction of the development of tourism (ecological, fishing, etc.), accompanying tourism as a result of the manifestation of the multiplier effect of types of economic activities (trade, catering, hotel activities, etc. ), as well as sanatorium and resort activities.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 12

Methodological approaches to the comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of the use of agricultural organizations' resources

The article examines, summarizes and systematizes the main directions of transformation of the global agro-food system. The first of them provides for ensuring access to safe and nutritious food for the population, the second – the transition to healthy and sustainable consumption patterns, the third – stimulating the production of natural products on a sufficient scale, the fourth – ensuring the sufficiency of livelihoods and equitable distribution of values, the fifth – increasing the resilience of the agro-food system to threats and risks, shocks and stresses. The business opportunities and effects of the implementation of the sustainable development strategy at the level of agricultural producers are determined. The key ones are highlighted: reducing risks and increasing business reputation; increasing market share due to the "price premium" caused by the introduction of sustainable development standards by companies; reducing costs and improving business efficiency. The trends in changing the strategy of companies in the agro-industrial sector of the Russian economy in connection with the interests of the main stakeholders in the implementation of the principles of sustainable development – consumers, government agencies and investors – are studied. Theoretical and methodological approaches have been developed to assess the use of the resource potential of agricultural organizations from the point of view of their compliance with the principles of sustainable development in environmental and social subsystems – two groups of indicators and their target values have been proposed. The first group demonstrates the responsible attitude of agricultural producers to the environment and includes indicators of the efficiency of consumption of water and energy resources, as well as indicators of the impact of the material and technical base on the environment. The second group includes indicators of the effectiveness of personnel policy and social support for employees of agricultural organizations. The proposed system of quantitative and qualitative indicators complements the classical methods of assessing the effectiveness of the use of agricultural organizations' resources and can be used by government agencies, credit institutions and other creditors to make managerial decisions on responsible investment.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 1

Methodological approaches to the regulatory needs of the crop industry in the region in the main types of agricultural machinery

The article proposes a methodological approach to substantiate the regulatory needs of the crop industry in the region in key types of agricultural machinery, based on the systematization of tasks for rationing needs and performing certain stages, involving the development and adjustment of target indicators of the system of strategic planning documents (strategies and concepts, forecasts and programs) in terms of technical modernization of the agricultural sectors of the region. The proposed approach takes into account various technologies of crop cultivation, the natural and economic conditions of individual agricultural zones, and assumes the use of high-tech agricultural machinery of a new generation. The article documents that the methodological basis for determining the need for modern agricultural machinery continues to be the system of norms and regulations, which, in the context of the emerging trend of modernization of the agricultural machinery fleet, requires timely adjustments and updates. The normative need for the main types of agricultural machinery for agricultural producers of the Rostov region has been determined. An assessment of the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the machine and tractor fleet of the agricultural sector of the region is given. The trends of material and technical modernization of the industry are revealed. The correction coefficients for determining the regulatory need for agricultural machinery of a new generation for agricultural producers of the Rostov region, taking into account the technologies used and the available arable land, are scientifically substantiated. A forecast of the needs of agricultural producers in the region for the main types of agricultural machinery in the crop production industry has been developed. The indicators of the regional State Program in terms of technical modernization of agricultural production in small forms of management with a real need for agribusiness have been set, indicating the need for their adjustment to strengthen the trends of material and technical modernization of the industry.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 2

Urban schoolchildren as a resource for the formation of human capital in the agro-industrial complex of an industrial region (the Kemerovo region – Kuzbass case study)

The example of the Kemerovo region of Kuzbass demonstrates that it is impossible to completely solve the personnel problem of the industrial region’s agro-industrial complex due to rural youth. In rural areas, at present, due to the narrowed type of population reproduction and the current conditions of training in the secondary general education system, there are insufficient opportunities to replenish personnel for the agricultural sector. The agro-industrial complex of industrial regions needs highly qualified personnel, therefore it is extremely important to consider not only rural, but also urban schoolchildren as a resource for the agricultural sector. For the study, a sociological survey was conducted among schoolchildren in grades 10-11 from five settlements in the Kemerovo region – Kuzbass, four of which are cities and one is an urban-type settlement. The purpose of the survey is to study the preferences of high school students in choosing a further direction of study. According to the survey results, it was established that continuing education at an agricultural university is the first priority for a small number of Kuzbass schoolchildren, while from 5.8% to 28.6% are considering this option along with other alternatives, and a third of respondents were undecided at the time of the survey. The data obtained indicate that urban schoolchildren can become a resource for the formation of human capital in the industrial region’s agro-industrial complex, but it is necessary to meet certain conditions.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 3

Analysis of the meanings and basic values in the system of professional competencies of agricultural workers

The changes that are currently taking place in our country, including in the agricultural sector of the economy, actualize the importance of not only professional, but also personal development of agricultural workers. In this regard, there is a rethinking of the meaning of value-semantic components in the system of professional competencies of agricultural workers. The self-improvement of a worker in the course of professional activity consists in the formation of professional competencies that are based on knowledge, skills and abilities. At the same time, the personality of a specialist develops due to a system of life values and meanings that are the basis of effective work. The methodological basis is the sociological study «The meanings and values of the well-being of the rural population of the Saratov region and the possibilities of achieving life goals», conducted by the by the IAgP RAS in 2023. To diagnose value-semantic orientations, the S. Schwartz questionnaire («Value Survey»), adapted for residents of rural Russia, was used. Based on the empirical results obtained, two groups of qualified agricultural workers with different levels of need for the development of professional competencies were identified, and the content and structural components of their value and semantic orientations were analyzed and compared. As a result of the study, it was established what value orientations and life meanings are characteristic of qualified workers with varying degrees of expressiveness of the desire to professionally improve themselves in the process of work. Value-semantic orientations, the level of development of which determines the attitude of workers in the agricultural sector to the nature, direction, and final results of work activity, makes it possible to identify a person’s attitude to professional activity as the most important part of life. The results obtained during the study contribute to the perception, dissemination and further strengthening of the value and semantic guidelines of agricultural workers in the system of professional competencies in accordance with modern socio-economic conditions.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 4

Improvement of innovation infrastructure as the basis of innovation attractiveness in the domestic agricultural sector

The article is devoted to one of the most important problems in the agricultural sector of the country's economy – the improvement of innovation infrastructure in the face of sanctions pressure. The necessity of structural qualitative changes in the organizational and economic mechanism, the regulatory framework, the instruments of investment activity and the information system is substantiated. It is noted that in modern conditions, the issues of the genesis of the economic category "infrastructure" remain very relevant, since it has not been studied in scientific works on classical economic theory and has not been considered as an independent object of research, which requires further comprehensive research in aspects of methodology and practice. It is shown that in countries with developed economies, innovation infrastructure is the object of increased attention from the state, which is explained by the public nature of the use of services provided by it and lower values of the main indicators of innovative attractiveness in the agricultural sector. The main elements of innovation infrastructure in the agricultural sector of the economy are systematized: scientific and technological, institutional, financial, innovation transfer, information and personnel. Objective characteristics of the functioning of the innovation infrastructure have been developed, such as: "current state", "level of efficiency", "system stability", "development". The role and importance of scientific and educational centers, the law of vertical integration in transnational breeding companies, digital solutions in the domestic agricultural industry, the platform of goods for agricultural producers "Own. Farming", launched by JSC "Rosselkhoznadzor" and other innovative infrastructure tools, as the basis for the transfer of scientific developments into economic practice and socio-economic development of rural areas. The list of tools of the organizational and economic mechanism for improving the innovation infrastructure in the agricultural sector of the country's economy in difficult conditions of sanctions pressure is proposed.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 5

Assessment of Management of Borrowed Funds of Agricultural Holdings in Russia

The purpose of the work is to assess the management of borrowed funds of agricultural holdings in the Russian Federation for a better understanding of the economic nature of these entities and the factors influencing their activities. As a result of the research, the following was revealed: 1) a pattern in the use of credit resources by agricultural holdings with a relatively low level of return on assets: the lower such profitability, the greater the volume of bank loans used. On the one hand, this is a consequence of a shortage of equity capital due to low profit levels, on the other hand, it contradicts the classical norms of financial management and represents a significant financial risk; 2) a downward trend in the share of short-term bank loans in the structure of liabilities of the average agricultural holding during the period 2009–2022 due to an increase in the volume of equity capital. As of 2022, the share of short-term bank loans in the structure of corresponding liabilities was 15%, which is sufficient to establish the dependence of the subjects under study on bank lending; 3) the lack of correlation between the indicators of the dynamics of return on assets of the organizations under study and the use of short-term bank loans. Changes in the return on assets indicator did not significantly affect the volume of their use. Such volumes were largely determined by the needs of operating activities and the lack of ability to quickly maneuver through other alternatives for raising capital. Ignoring by the managers of the organizations under study the dynamics of return on assets poses a danger to the financial condition of agricultural enterprises with a systematically low value of this indicator.

Issue № 3, March 2024, article № 6

Trends and prospects of implementing state support for the agricultural sector of the economy in Russia and the Krasnodar region

Based on a comparative analysis of the transition from unrelated state support in agriculture to direct subsidization of individual industries, the overall economic effect in the achieved results of the agro-industrial complex of Russia is estimated in accordance with the goals of the new Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation 2020. The research results confirm the positive economic effect of budget subsidies for agriculture, at the same time pointing to the need to ensure the integrated development of production systems that must have sufficient material and technical base and favourable climatic and infrastructural properties to ensure the effectiveness of state support. It is noted that the Krasnodar Territory has the most significant competitive advantages in comparison with other regions of the country in terms of the availability of high-quality agricultural land, product specializations, seaports, and a high index of technological changes. In conclusion, the article summarizes the need to support high investment activity in agriculture and stabilize export-import flows. The importance of strengthening the mechanisms for increasing productivity in the agro-industrial complex based on the widespread use of tax incentives for investment projects, the provision of state grants and direct budget subsidies for products sold, the installation and operation of irrigated farming systems, the development of family farms, farmers' wine startups and farmers' cooperatives was emphasized.