Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 11

Fruit and vegetable sector of the Eurasian Economic Union: potential for growth and limiting factors

An essential task for Member-states of Eurasian Economic Union is to develop a competitive and sustainable fruit and vegetable sector which is align with the needs of the domestic demand. Despite the dynamic development of crop production as a sub-sector,, its current scale of gross yield is not enough to fulfill the demand of fruits and vegetables in the frame of EAEU. The article contains comparative analysis of production and trade data of fruits and vegetables in the world and in the Member-states of the EAEU. Most of the fruits and berries in the EAEU are grown in Russia and Belarus, vegetables – in Russia and Kazakhstan. It is noted that the proportion of fruits and vegetables purchased from foreign countries in the structure of agricultural imports is close to 30%. At the same time, the most significant growth of import is observed in the interseasonal period due to the lack of modern storage facilities. Of particular interest is the analysis of development of fruit and vegetable industry thru implementation of the measures of integrational policy at the Union level. The article contains both: assessments of deterrence factors as well as proposals for strengthening cooperation between the Member-states in the field of vegetable and fruit growing, including the introduction of high-yield varieties and hybrids developed in the EAEU, the implementation of joint projects, the advancement of cooperative ties among small-scale producers, the development of digital technologies, technical systems for fruit and vegetable storage, the use of ecological farming methods, and others.

Issue № 8, August 2023, article № 13

Rural space differentiation: regularities and driving forces

Most of the publications on this topic are devoted to assessing the consequences of differentiation. The reasons are almost not studied. The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns and driving forces of the differentiation of rural space. Tasks - to systematize the concept of "differentiation"; identify patterns and driving forces of differentiation at the macro, meso and micro levels. Objects of observation: regions of the European part of Russia (ER); municipal districts of the regions of the North-West; existing practices at the micro level. Differentiation is considered as a phenomenon, process, research method and management tool. The differentiation of rural space is studied depending on: the rental potential of the land (macro level), the location of the territory relative to the center of the region (meso level), the presence of intangible assets (micro level). The driving force behind differentiation is determined by levels, respectively, the competition between agribusiness entities to meet the demand for food, the gravitational field of the "center", social and human capital. At the macro level, there is a polarization of indicators between regions with high and low rental potential. At the mesolevel, relative to the center of the regions, the territories of the near and far periphery are distinguished. At the micro level, the best indicators relative to neighboring districts have a municipal district with a developed social capital. When developing a rural development policy, it is necessary to take into account the patterns and driving forces of the differentiation of rural space.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 1

Scientific approaches to adjust the strategy of development of agro-industrial and fisheries complexes for the period up to 2030

The article analyzes the Strategy for the development of agriculture and fisheries complexes for the period up to 2030, based on the non-fulfillment of a number of national goals outlined in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "On national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030" dated 21.07.2020. A critical assessment of the approaches used in the formation of the Strategy, as well as the strategic directions outlined in it, is given. The directions proposed in the Strategy for some positions do not correspond to the national goals approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation "On national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030". In particular, no attention is paid to the development of rural areas, and their population filling is not a strategic direction for the development of the agro-industrial complex. And this is not to mention the need to eliminate investment insufficiency as soon as possible, import substitution, the development of the scientific and technological basis for the development of agriculture, its staffing, the construction of a management system adequate to the intended tasks, etc. In this regard, the team of authors substantiates strategic directions for the development of agriculture and fisheries complexes for the period up to 2030, contributing to the development of these sectors of the economy, as well as rural areas.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 2

Improving agro-industrial development planning for Siberian Federal District in state strategic documents

The studies of the strategic development of Siberia and its territories are prompted by the Russian government’s approval in early 2023 of the Strategy for Socio-Economic Development of Siberian Federal District until 2035. Siberia’s long-term development agenda has once again defined its status of a territory of economic growth in Russia. According to the state priorities outlined in the strategic document, sustainable development of Siberia is associated with transition from production of raw materials organizing their advanced processing and creating products with high added value. The agro-industrial complex of SFD, being one of the promising areas of the district development in the conditions of transformation of the economy and foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation, can become an innovation centre generating high-quality technological and environmentally friendly products in demand both in the domestic and foreign food market. The hypothesis of the study is that the realization of the integration scenario of SFD development within the framework of the approved Strategy can ensure efficient development of its constituents’ economies as well as strengthen the position of Siberia as a macro-region of the country. The basic conditions for realizing the Strategy on the basis of the integration scenario include synchronization of the national strategies and the strategies of the Siberian constituent entities within the Russian Federation, their complementation with auxiliary mechanisms as well as creation of specialized decision-making centres. The Strategy should develop an organizational and economic mechanism making it possible to form comprehensive system solutions that will ensure efficient planning, in particular, in the agro-industrial complex. The relevance of this mechanism is accounted for by the need to eliminate contradictions in the governmental strategic documents of different level and to ensure consistency and coherence of managerial decisions. The due interconnection of elements of the strategic planning system developed for the agro-industrial complex as well as the competent formation of its documents will increase their practical value for interregional and regional management and will form proper guidelines for external actors, including investors planning to invest in the Russian economy.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 3

Assessment of the impact of resource factors of sustainable development of agricultural production on the state of food independence in Russia

The article deals with methodological and scientific-practical issues of sustainable development of agricultural production in Russia in the context of ensuring food security. An integrated approach to solving the problems of sustainable development of agricultural production and food independence is proposed, taking into account the influence of resource factors and their assessment in the context of modern global challenges. An assessment was made of the direct and indirect impact of the identified resource factors on the sustainable development of agricultural production and the state of food independence. It is shown that the main threat to the food independence of Russia is the high level of import resource dependence of agricultural production. Economic and mathematical calculations of the dynamics of structural changes in the resource potential of agricultural production by groups of resources have been carried out. A set of chain and basic indicators of changes in the resource structure has been calculated in order to increase the validity of analytical conclusions and proposed measures to correct the ongoing agricultural policy. The conclusion is drawn, on the one hand, about the relative stability of the resource structure, on the other hand, about the existing long-term trends associated with the growth of resource provision, increasing the efficiency of resource use, and the introduction of innovations. The use of a set of coefficients confirmed the dependence of the sustainability of the resource structure of agricultural production on negative factors caused by the influence of the external environment and sanctions. This made it possible to substantiate the possibility of new structural changes in the resource potential in 2023–2025, which determines the priority nature of the implementation of the strategy for the formation and use of the resource potential of agricultural production for sustainable development and ensuring the country's food independence. It is also proposed to strengthen the updating of information on production and resource relationships between sectors of the economy in order to increase the validity of the developed areas of state agrarian policy.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 4

On supporting digital transformation in the context of information asymmetry

Based on the understanding of the inevitability of information asymmetry in the creation, implementation and support of innovations in general and digital transformation, in particular, we raised the question of the forms of support for the digital transformation of the agro-industrial complex. The negative impact of asymmetry was considered on the example of two key figures of the innovation process – the producer of innovation and the consumer of innovation. This consideration leads to the conclusion about "market failures" in the course of these processes. It follows from this that the state should be involved in stimulating and financing the creation of digital innovations. Next, we present in tabular form an extensive list of practical tasks that determine the specific content of digital transformation at various levels of government, and, accordingly, the subject of support from the state. Since the state apparatus, as a rule, also does not have all the necessary information to determine a specific list of supported innovations, the role of experts and the most appropriate form of state support, which should primarily perform a stimulating function, are considered. The specification of the functions of the state in the course of the main processes to support digital innovation and digital transformation is carried out in the form of a table, which also considers the functions of other actors in the innovation process - producers and consumers of innovations, two types of experts. In general, this approach can contribute to solving the important and large organizational and economic work of the state on the development of digital transformation.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 5

Criteria assessment of the use of end-to-end technologies for the formation of a financial mechanism for digitalization of the turnover of intangible assets of the enterprise

End-to-end digital technologies are the technological essence of digital intellectual assets involved in their financial turnover. At the same time, digital intellectual assets in the format of intangible assets that bring economic benefits from their use for a long time are of the greatest interest. It is they who fix the result of the application of end-to-end technology in the form of a separate asset involved in the digital transformation of the economy. Creating a digital intellectual asset based on end-to-end technologies is a rather non-trivial task, since it occurs in conditions of high uncertainty of the external environment. In this regard, the task of finding a decision support mechanism for choosing the best available technology for creating a digital intangible asset and determining the criteria for such a choice becomes urgent. This article proposes a two-level mechanism for selecting criteria for determining the best end-to-end technology (NST) to create a digital intellectual asset (CIA). In order to determine the potential for the use of end-to-end technologies, an assessment methodology was developed for the creation of intangible assets, which made it possible to identify the intersections of intangible assets and end-to-end technologies, which are potential growth points for promising digital intellectual assets of a new technological order. To create a financial mechanism for selecting the most effective end-to-end technologies, key criteria and a model for selecting the best technologies based on the provisions of game theory were proposed. The proposed tool can be used in the tasks of heuristic search and decision-making when creating digital intangible assets based on end-to-end technologies.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 6

Trajectory of digital transformation of the agro-industrial complex of Russia.

The authors of the article reviewed the stages of the industrial revolution, as well as current programs for the development and support of the agro-industrial complex. The paper examined the potential of the "smart farming" market in Russia, identified the priorities of scientific and technological development, and presented the results of assessing the digital maturity of the agricultural industry. Studies have shown that the agricultural sector has a low digitalization index compared to other industries. The main technologies that are in demand in the agro-industrial complex are: crop monitoring, drone control in the formation of field maps, artificial intelligence, yield forecasting, performance analytics, optimization of logistics processes. The leaders in the introduction of innovative technologies in agricultural production are the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts. The main factors contributing to the high level of digitalization in the industry are: favorable natural and climatic conditions, powerful scientific and educational potential, as well as a significant amount of state support. The advanced subjects for the use of precision farming technology are: Volgograd Region, Krasnodar Territory, and Voronezh Region. Based on the correlation and regression analysis, the authors proved the relationship between the volume of agricultural products produced and the level of technological equipment of the industry. The regression results showed that an increase in the share of investments and the coefficient of renewal of fixed assets leads to a decrease in agricultural production. The share of machinery and equipment, as well as the coefficient of renewal of fixed assets, on the contrary, increase production volumes. This paradox is explained by the fact that not just investments are important, but investments in high-tech equipment, which confirms the importance of Industry 4.0 for the agricultural sector of the economy.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 7

Methodological bases of substantiation of modern organizational and technological regulations, standards and standards for the innovative development of the crop industry

The authors present the results of their research, which helped to identify the main trends in the scientific and technical development of this industry. The algorithm and principles of economic justification of regulations and standards for the crop industry were presented on the example of oilseeds, and special attention was paid to the ecological block of this justification. The developed basic standards and regulations for the crop industry on the example of rapeseed can be used by specialists in the field of agriculture and researchers to make decisions in the development of agricultural technologies and innovative development of the industry. The results obtained can also be useful for companies engaged in the production of agricultural products, as well as to support government programs in the field of crop production development. In general, this work can serve as a good example of structuring and economic justification of decision-making in agriculture and other industries using modern methods and technologies, which is a prerequisite for the sustainable development of the industry in the future. Another significant application of the research results may be associated with increasing the competitiveness of domestic producers in the world markets of agricultural products. The developed regulations and standards make it possible to improve the quality and efficiency of agricultural production with a minimum load on the environment. This, in turn, will help Russian manufacturers to strengthen their positions on world markets, increase exports of products and attract additional investments in the industry. The results of this study can be used for the development of sustainable agriculture and relevant government programs. As noted in the article, environmental aspects should be taken into account at all stages of the development of agricultural technologies and decision-making in the crop industry. The use of the developed regulations and standards will help to minimize the negative impact on the environment and the conservation of biodiversity.