Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 2

Methodological Approaches to the Assessment of Public Goods Produced by Rural Economies

Value of public goods produced by the rural economy is relevant for two reasons. Firstly, to more accurately reflect its contribution to the gross welfare in comparison with other sectors (which is important for elaborating balanced strategies for the development of the country's economy). Secondly, to study the feasibility of reimbursement of its costs due to the incremental production of public goods. The paper reviews the principles of evaluation applied or applicable to the evaluation of public goods created by the rural economy. Their list is supplemented by the principle of policy costs, which, in comparison with others, is better aligned with R.Coase's arguments about financing public goods through taxes. A technique is proposed that implements this principle, based on a questionnaire survey of experts. In the application to the rural economy, the considered principles are ranked according to the criteria of objectivity, accuracy, laboriousness of assessment and data availability. Furthermore, the paper justifies the predominant use of the principles of hidden transfers and policy costs for evaluation in order to access the contribution of the rural economy to public welfare. To justify the reimbursement of the increase in the production of public goods of the rural economy, it is recommended to compare the assessment according to the cost principle with the assessment according to the principle of policy costs: the amount of financing of the increase should be such that the first of them does not exceed the second.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 4

Transition to "Smart Agriculture" in the Interests of Ensuring Food Security in Russia

The relevance of the topic of the study is due to the fact that agriculture, on the one hand, being a producer of food security, on the other hand, causes significant damage to the environment and natural capital, because in Russia up to now the economic activity in this industry has mainly extensive and resource-intensive nature. Purpose of the study: to present and describe the concept of "smart agriculture" (climatically and ecologically optimized agriculture), which can be implemented in the conditions of the Russian economy. The methodology of the study is based on the institutional-economic methodological approach, involving the analysis of big data of agricultural industry statistics, as well as the synthesis of recommendations on its regulatory and legal regulation and practical guidance of current changes. The article analyzes the dynamics of the Russian food security index in the context of its key components, including the environmental consequences of the industry. The formula of transition from extensive to "smart", i.e. climatically and ecologically optimized agriculture is described, which includes the following components: new understanding of sustainability, responsibility and productivity of agricultural activities; creation of a new institutional space for agricultural activities; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants; transition to resource-saving and digital technologies of energy supply, logistics, management. By the end of 2021 Russia ranked 23rd in the Global Food Security Index, but the efficiency and quality of use of natural capital to ensure food security cannot be recognized as acceptable. This is primarily due to the fact that the Russian agriculture functions as a resource-intensive one, which is not focused on replenishment of natural capital and compensation for the accumulated environmental damage. The concept of "smart agriculture" proposed in the article is capable of overcoming the described problems.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 5

Information Subsystem Integration Mechanism Of Agricultural, Processing And Marketing Enterprises In Region

System integration is one of the most effective instruments of increase in level of efficiency of functioning of the enterprises of the sphere of agrarian and industrial complex. In this regard there is an objective need for a research of features of the mechanism of transformation of internal functions, interactions and operations within the organizations uniting in complete structure. In relation to the agrarian sector of Russia the solution of problems of system integration is difficult owing to the low level of digitalization of the majority of agricultural producers and therefore it is a little lit in scientific researches. The purpose of the presented work is formation on the basis of the developed earlier methodical approach to creation of mechanisms of system integration of the enterprises of the second and third spheres of agrarian and industrial complex of the region of the information mechanism designed to display graphically structure, movement and synchronization of flows of information on all internal processes of the studied organizations for the purpose of their effective optimization. The method used in work is guided by GOST P ISO 19439 "The national standard of the Russian Federation. Integration of the enterprise. A basis of modeling of the enterprise", including the principles of system approach and expressing models of the nature of the enterprises and also the economic mechanism of their managing through a number of standard representations (subsystems). The analysis which is carried out in article allowed to reveal a number of positive aspects of functioning of the studied organizations of the region interacting with each other on the principles of partial integration. However existence of a number of negative trends in their development testifies to need of search of new opportunities for improvement of a control system of internal processes. The structure of the mechanism of integration of information subsystem on the example of the concrete agricultural, overworking and marketing enterprises of the region is reflected in article, including basic elements for its construction are specified, interrelations between them are described, internal interactions both at the private level of managing of the organizations, and at a stage of their merge in the general design on the basis of automation and introduction of elements of information technologies are detailed.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 6

Improvement of the Organizational and Economic Mechanism of State Regulation of the Milk Product Subcomplex of Siberia

The dairy sub complex is an integrated subsystem of technologically and economically interconnected industries united by a common goal – to satisfy the population with milk and dairy products, taking into account scientifically based consumption standards. Currently, the dairy sub complex of the Siberian region operates in conditions of imbalance of its constituent industries. In dairy cattle breeding, the number of cows has not yet stabilized, which creates a difficult situation in the raw milk market. A difficult situation is developing in the dairy processing industry. On the one hand, the industry operates in conditions of a narrowing of the raw milk market, on the other – in conditions of falling effective demand of the population. In such a situation, unscrupulous processing enterprises are trying to find easier ways to make a profit. Namely: to produce counterfeit instead of high-quality dairy products, replacing milk fat with cheap animal fats and palm oil. By the organizational and economic mechanism, we understand the system of organizational structures and economic levers and methods of influencing the development of the dairy sub complex in order to increase its efficiency and achieve its objectives. At the heart of the improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism, we see the strengthening of state regulation and comprehensive support for the industries included in the dairy sub complex. In this study, the main directions of improving the organizational and economic mechanism of state regulation of the dairy sub complex of Siberia with an emphasis on regulatory support are outlined.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 7

Improving the Efficiency of Perennial Grass Fodder Production in the Non-Black Earth Region of Russia through the Use of Digital Technologies

The article considers the significance and problems of development of dairy cattle and fodder production in the regions of the Non-Black Earth Region of the Russian Federation. The influence of the level of development of dairy cattle and fodder production from perennial grasses on the intensity of the use of arable land in the regions of Non-Black Earth was determined. Analysis of production and economic indicators of pilot farms in the Leningrad region confirmed the significant impact of the intensity of feed production on the efficiency of milk production. Insufficient realization of the advantage of dairy cows as ruminants to digest cheap voluminous fodder produced in the Non-Black Earth lands with low alternative cost reduces the efficiency of milk production and investment attractiveness of the industry, despite the high dairy productivity. Analysis of the cost structure of perennial grass fodder production revealed the problems of increasing the efficiency of their cultivation, timely reseeding using seeds of high quality, increasing the technical equipment of production, intensive use of mineral fertilizers and crop protection chemicals. Increased risks in agricultural production in the "zone of risky agriculture" cause the need to form in farms and regions of Non-Black Earth Region adaptive system of forage production, taking into account territorial and local agro-climatic, production-economic and environmental features, allowing the optimal realization of the effect of scale in dairy cattle husbandry. The proposed structure of the digital information-analytical system for planning and controlling the production of forages from perennial grasses for highly productive cows is designed to ensure the development and effective functioning of the adaptive system of forage production in regions with an acute shortage of personnel in rural areas, accumulating knowledge and experience, new requirements for quality forage for highly productive animals, local conditions, forecast and actual external environment parameters.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 8

Production and Processing of Bast Crops in Russia as an Element of Import Substitution

Flax, technical hemp and oilseed flax are the most important technical crops in Russia, allowing for import substitution of raw materials, textiles and goods previously imported from abroad. The largest increase in acreage and gross harvest over the past 10 years has been observed in technical hemp, in second place is oilseed flax, and flax is the only one of them whose sowing areas have decreased. Over the period from 2020 to 2021, the number of regions sowing flax has almost halved, while the number of subjects of the Russian Federation growing technical hemp has increased by 5 regions. Per-hectare subsidies do not increase the interest of farms in growing flax, because they do not compensate for losses. The annual increase in prices for technological equipment at the beginning of the second quarter of 2022 averaged 25 %. For the period 2019-2022, the selling price of threadbare flax increased by 2 times, and short flax fibers by 1,4 times. The selling price of the same type of hemp, after a short increase, returned to the pre-crisis level. Fluctuations in exchange rates, selling prices, rising inflation and the uncertainty of the economic situation in Russia puts Russian flax mills in difficult conditions. The main problems of these enterprises are the lack of necessary funds and sales markets. In such a situation, serious state support is needed in the form of additional financing, preferential loans, subsidies, and tax benefits. The problem of sales markets should be solved by the state order, which could be formed by the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Health and Social Development, the Ministry of Transport, which would ensure the sustainable development of domestic production and increase the economic independence and security of the country.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 9

Efficiency of Using Robotic Systems in the Milk Subcomplex of the Region

The world community is becoming increasingly anxious about the possibility of an aggravation of the food problem, which could turn into a food crisis. To address possible problems, countries are investing heavily in solving these problems. In this context, the use of digital and information and communication technologies in agricultural production is becoming an important trend. In our country, as a result of the implementation of the Food Security Doctrine, tangible results have been achieved; many indicators related to crop production have been achieved or are close to being achieved. Volume indicators were increased for livestock products, but the indicators of the Doctrine were not achieved, especially for the production of milk and dairy products. The article deals with the use of robotic systems in the dairy sub complex of a particular region, achievements, problems and prospects for the use of these tools. It should be noted that digital animal husbandry is not some fashionable trend, but the most important way to intensify the industry. At this stage, the farms use robotic tools that were purchased from foreign companies before the well-known events. Prior to this, the manufacturers of the products were engaged in the maintenance of these installations, repairs, adjustments and assisted in the management. Now they don't. Further progress depends on two factors: first, how these suppliers behave, and second, the ability and capacity of our industry to engage in import substitution. The solution of food security in terms of the production of dairy products largely depends on how we successfully cope with these tasks. The article also notes that the changes that accompany the use of digital technologies lead to the demand for new specialties, radically change the requirements for personnel, transform the way of life in the countryside, it becomes more industrialized and creative.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 10

Comparative Economic Efficiency of Using Traditional Organic Fertilizers and Siderates

The article describes a comparative estimation of the economic efficiency of the use of bedding cattle manure and green manure or siderate (vetch-oat mixture). The relevance of the subject is determined by the presence of the problem of conservation and accumulation of organic matter in gray forest and soddy-podzolic soils, as well as by necessity of the rise of the economic efficiency of production in agriculture, that is directly connected with state food security. The initial data for the study were the scientific literature, state statistics materials and the results of scientific experiments conducted at the Verkhnevolzhsky FASC in 2007–2020. The study is built on the basis of the consistent involvement of an increasing number of factors that affect the efficiency of the use of organic fertilizers. Some private conclusions: the technology costs of the use of studied types of fertilizers, including production fertilizer itself and application its into soil, was in 1,06 – 1,5 times lower on siderate, than on manure in variant, when mineral fertilizer isn’t applicated over growing of sideral culture; when mineral fertilizer is applicated on sideral culture with N60 per 1 ha doza, the use of manure is more economic efficient, when its transportation distance is 1 -5 km, when distance is more, it is rationally to use siderat. The main conclusion, done accounting lost profit, has shown the higher economic efficiency of the use of siderate in comparison with cattle manure at any transportation distance for manure.

Issue № 8, August 2022, article № 11

Methodological Approach To Assessing The Analysis And Forecast of the Quality of Life in Rural Areas of the Region

In the Russian economy, more and more attention has recently been paid to the quality of life of the rural population. The purpose of the work is to develop a comprehensive methodological approach to assessing the analysis and forecast of the quality of life of the population in rural areas of the region. In the proposed methodological approach, two modules were identified (analysis of the quality of life of rural residents and forecast of the quality of life of rural residents), which included in the first case - factors that reduce or increase the quality of life of the population, and in the second case - forming the quality of life and measures of socio-demographic support. The main advantages of this methodological approach to assessing the analysis and forecast of the quality of life in rural areas of the region include the variability of the use of indicators and the ease of its application, which opens up access to a wide range of readers and researchers, which will allow evaluating any block, both individually and all factors in the aggregate. The criteria for assessment factors for eight blocks were systematized (health status, education system, employment and quality of work life, leisure and recreation, the state of the consumer market for goods and services, the state of the environment, personal safety, social opportunities and social activity). It is worth noting that the developed model of analysis and prediction of the quality of life of the rural population is based on the use of empirical research methods based on the knowledge of real objects of research. The area of application of the developed methodological approach to assessing the analysis and forecast of the quality of life of the population in rural areas is scientific organizations, management bodies of the agro-industrial complex at the federal, regional and municipal levels.