Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 8

The development of industrial horticulture: problems and their solutions

The article examines the state, trends and problems of the development of industrial horticulture in Russia, which is concentrated in agricultural organizations and farms, and suggests ways to solve them. Over the years of the implementation of the State Program for the development of agriculture in these farms, the gross harvest of fruits and berries increased by 1039.7 thousand tons, or 153.3%, the area of orchards and berry fields - by 17.1 thousand hectares, or 11.0%. However, the achieved level of fruit and berry production will not allow ensuring food security in the field of fruit consumption: the level of self-sufficiency is 44.9% with a threshold value of 60.0%, economic accessibility is 63.0% with a standard of 100%. Imports play a significant role in fruit consumption.The reproduction of plantings, that is, the replacement of old orchards and berry orchards and the creation of intensive high-yielding plantations based on horticulture, which will achieve their optimal structure and dramatically reduce the uncollected area of fruit-bearing plantations; the cultivation of high-quality certified planting material of varieties of fruit and berry crops adapted to the conditions, will contribute to an increase in the production of fruits and berries in agricultural organizations and farmsof our country, which will reduce its imports; strengthening the storage base and integration within the enterprise of fruit production, storage and processing, which will make it possible to rationally use all grown fruit and berry products; creation of consumer cooperatives for the storage and sale of fruits; improvement of the state support system for horticulture, providing for an increase in budget allocations and changing the conditions for allocating subsidies.

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 9

Economic problems of the development of fisheries in Russia in the crisis conditions of the global market

This article discusses the general economic grounds for analyzing key provisions characterizing the potential for further development of the fisheries industry.The economics of the fishery complex and measures to modernize and intensify its market mechanisms should be inextricably considered in the context of strategic planning for the development of the entire country’s economy, and not just its sectoral level. Fisheries represent a special area of development where the technological combination of completely different types of activities and their synchronized development is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of its existence - namely, ensuring an adequate food supply for the population while maintaining the economic accessibility of the produced product and food security in general. The methodological systematic approach used made it possible to generate theoretical and applied material for a multi-vector analysis of the specifics of the fishery complex. Consideration of this specificity led to a reasoned rejection of the legally vague concept of a complex in favor of the legally recognized status of the production industry. The major technological innovations that have already found application in the industry and/or other industries are discussed in general terms. Arguments are given for including the fishery complex in the vital economy grouping. The concept of creating a new sub-industry is being put forward - the fish gastroindustry.

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 10

Modeling the livestock industry to reduce its carbon footprint and meet food safety criteria

The modern concept of sustainable development of agri-food systems requires the harmonization of environmental and socio-economic parameters of their functioning in conditions of increasing natural and climatic changes. The challenge of reducing carbon emissions while maintaining sustainable development is particularly challenging in the livestock sector. The goal is to solve the problem of optimizing the structure of livestock industries with a comprehensive assessment of results according to three criteria: economic (revenue from product sales), environmental (carbon footprint from all types of animals), social (integral discrepancy of per capita consumption of meat by type, milk and eggs relative to recommended medical norms). The analysis of the methodology for solving similar problems abroad showed that a large number of studies are devoted to this problem and they are carried out using the method of mathematical modeling of agri-food systems. The model developed by the authors uses the apparatus of nonlinear optimization of the livestock production structure at the national level and has an integrated modular structure. From the conducted model experiments it follows that the reduction in carbon footprint is directly due to a decrease in the number of dairy and beef cattle, as well as sheep and goats, and to a lesser extent affects the pig and poultry meat industries. These negative effects can be mitigated or compensated by improving technology and regulating the quality of the food supply.Solutions to the problem were obtained using a linear convolution of partial quality criteria for the transformation of the sectoral structure of livestock farming: income growth and compliance of consumption with medical standards at a fixed rate of greenhouse gas emissions in carbon equivalent. The multi-criteria nature of the task of low-carbon transformation of livestock farming gives rise to many Pareto-optimal strategic solutions, a significant part of which does not lead to negative effects of a socio-economic nature. Structural changes in livestock farming make it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without a critical drop in producers' incomes. Further development of the model is possible by improving its information support and simulation capabilities, introducing a technological factor into the model, including a partial equilibrium module in the markets for livestock products and the emerging market of carbon units in the model.

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 11

Transformation of the principles of human capital formation in the conditions of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex

Currently, industries of the agricultural sector are rapidly developing, which is associated with the need to ensure food security and achieve technological sovereignty of agro-industrial production. In such conditions, agricultural enterprises are forced to switch to an innovative path of development to maintain their own competitiveness and increase the efficiency of production processes. The use of modern technologies in production and organization of business processes leads to the transformation of the principles of human capital formation for the agro-industrial complex.In modern conditions, there are a number of restrictions on the development of human capital in the agro-industrial complex and rural areas, including a reduction in the rural population, an uncompetitive level of wages in the agro-industrial complex, and the low impact of digitalization processes on the rural population. At the same time, the use of innovation is a condition for the sustainable development of agricultural enterprises, and human capital is the key factor of the innovation economy. There is currently an increase in the need for innovation of agricultural organizations activities, which leads to increased demand for personnel with the necessary professional competencies from employers.The article presents a model of interaction between the main subjects of the development of the agro-industrial complex in the formation of the need for human capital in the agro-industrial complex, shows modern principles of the formation of human capital in the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex, and identifies the features of the transformation of requirements for human capital in the agro-industrial complex, taking into account the great challenges of the Strategy for scientific and technological development of Russian Federation.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 1

Regulation of prices and price relations in the agro-industrial complex at the present stage

The article is devoted to the issues of price regulation and price relations in the agro-industrial complex in the context of the development of import substitution and technological sovereignty of the country. It is necessary to ensure the financial stability of agricultural producers and expanded reproduction, which largely depend on balanced price relations in the agro-food market. The change in price proportions in one segment of the agro-industrial complex leads to a transformation of the price system throughout the agro-food chain. The article notes that currently the regulation of price relations in the agro-industrial complex is based on two legal acts that do not cover the range of emerging problems related to the formation of the price situation in the agro-food market. The analysis of the price situation showed that over the past five years, the price increase of agricultural producers amounted to 33%, while the prices of producers of industrial goods and services purchased by agricultural organizations increased by 42%, in the food industry – by 44%, and in the consumer market – by 45%. The authors estimated the cost of agricultural products according to the main elements of material costs, which occupy a significant share in the cost structure: mineral fertilizers, fuel, electricity, feed. Recently, there has been a significant increase in spending on these resources. As a result, there was an increase in cost, and producer prices did not compensate for their rise in price and did not provide the necessary level of profitability for the main types of products, which leads to an increase in the number of low-profit and unprofitable organizations. In this regard, the authors propose to develop an organizational and economic mechanism for regulating price relations in the agro-industrial complex and consolidate it with a legal act, and add a block with financial support to the State Program.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 2

The main agricultural products production assessment in Russia in 2024

The article presents the forecast of the main types of agricultural products production in Russia in 2024, made in line with the methodology developed in Agrarian policy and Agro-industrial complex development department of FSBSI FRC VNIIESH. The main forecast indicators are: areas and agricultural crops yields, livestock and productivity of animals, gross production. As a result of agricultural crops yields analysis from 1980 years onwards, the multidirectional dynamics of yield changes by regions of Russia and types of crops has been established. Favorable years for one agricultural crop are not the same for other ones. In our research the basis for determining the year’s favorability degree was the yield of grain crops, covered over 22% of the gross agricultural output and about 40% of the gross crop production output. Within the framework of the grain yield conditions and production results (outcome of conditions and results), relative indicators of variation and average square deviations are calculated, which were used to predict yield deviations by outcome (favorable, average, unfavorable). A quantitative assessment (probability) of the outcomes occurrence in Russia and in the Russian Federation regions in terms of grain yields has been determined. According to our estimates, in 2024 we should expect the implementation of the average weather year with grain production in the amount of 147 million tons (68% probability), a favorable year - 160 million tons (15%), an unfavorable year - 106 million tons (18%).