Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 8
Cluster approach in agricultural machinery industry for more sustainable and efficient technical supply in Russian agriculture
The development of cluster organization in agricultural machinery industry gives an opportunity to provide agricultural producers with equipment and components more sustainably, as well as to increase the efficiency of related services. Examples of existing clusters in the appropriate field are demonstrated. Various forms of cluster formations based on the product, territorial (regional) and industry – based organizational approaches, as well as in the case of inter - cluster and multi - cluster interaction are analyzed. Various schematic models for future development of agricultural machinery industry focused on the domestic agricultural producers supply when various forms of cluster organization and cluster interactions functioning are proposed. It is proved that the most progressive form is the cluster functioning model according to the industry - based principle. An opportunity of introducing technical and technological complexes to cluster formations based on machine - technological station principle, but with the provision of a wider range of services, is shown.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 9
Methodological approaches to the management of purchases of agricultural equipment in an agricultural holding
During the study of the production and financial activities of agricultural holdings, we found that the greatest difficulties for the management of associations are caused by operations related to the selection and purchase of agricultural equipment, which is due to the lack of established internal rules, prescribed instructions for managing purchases of agricultural equipment, standardizing this process by documenting all elements of the flowchart of the process. To fix this problem, we have developed a process model for managing purchases of agricultural equipment in an agricultural holding, which includes the following processes: preliminary selection of bidders for a closed tender; collection and analysis of data on the competitive advantages and disadvantages of prospective bidders; formation and approval of updated technical specifications, criteria for evaluating equipment and suppliers, approval of the list of companies admitted to the tender; conducting a tender. Information and documentation support of the procurement management process of agricultural equipment has been developed, including a set of instructions. These instructions are essentially internal regulations (standards) regulating the procurement process at the level of the agricultural holding. The implementation of the proposed process model for managing purchases of agricultural equipment, including information and documentation support for this process in the form of local regulations (standards), will allow integrated organizations to quickly manage processes and purposefully improve them, involve employees of the structure in the analysis and improvement of processes, create all conditions for the development of a quality management system in the agricultural holding.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 10
Economic efficiency of primary processing of flax and pellet production in farms and agricultural cooperatives
Almost 50% of enterprises in Russia cultivating flax do not have acreage that allows them to effectively use classical equipment of normal dimensions for primary processing. For such enterprises with small acreage, a number of small-sized lines of technological equipment for the production of long and short flax fibers have been developed. The bonfire formed during processing is about 60% of the volume of flax, it is suitable for the production of fuel briquettes or pellets; this will make it possible to obtain chemically and biologically safe fuel. Given the large number of flax producers with small acreage, it became necessary to analyze the economic efficiency of the primary processing of flax trusts on small-sized equipment and the impact of the production of fuel pellets from bonfires on the financial result of the enterprise. The domestic small-sized equipment for the primary processing of flax-long-grain trusts into long and short fiber produced by FGBNU FNC LC, as well as a KG-0.6 mini granulation complex for the production of fuel pellets from bonfires, is considered and analyzed. It is established that the primary processing of flax on small-sized equipment in the conditions of farms and agricultural cooperatives is cost-effective regardless of the shift work of the enterprise. The production of fuel pellets from flax bark will increase the profitability of the enterprise by an average of 10%, significantly reducing the payback period of capital expenditures. It is established that increasing the shift work of the enterprise improves the financial result to a greater extent than the production of additional products in the form of pellets.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 11
Based on statistical data, the article defines the positions of the Russian Federation in the production and export of soybeans and individual soybean-derived products. It was revealed that the intensive increase in soybean acreage and production is due to targeted actions in this area by the government of the Russian Federation, which led to an increase in Russia's share in the world markets for soybeans and soy products. To study the export potential, three groups of products were selected: soybeans, soybean oil and oilcake, which currently form comparable export volumes. Based on the structural and dynamic analysis, the role of the Russian Federation in the world markets of the analyzed products was determined - in recent years, the country has been among the top ten exporters, although with a small share, but with a tendency to grow faster than the world market as a whole, the main economic partner countries. As a result of the study, a significant negative trade balance in the foreign trade of the Russian Federation in soybeans was revealed, which casts doubt on the economic feasibility of increasing the export of soybeans, and a positive trade balance in the foreign trade in soybean oil and oilcake. Based on the available expert assessments on the development of the use of soybean products, conclusions were drawn about the prospects for increasing exports of soybean processing products - soybean oil, oilcake, isolate, which is due both to the growth in global demand for products and to the increase in the production of these products in the country. Restrictions in exports associated with the existing disproportions in soybean production and the placement of processing facilities have been identified, and solutions have been proposed in the short term.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 12
Regional features and factors of influence on the use of e-government services by the rural population
The study was carried out in order to substantiate the choice of state regional policy mechanisms to achieve the goals of sustainable development in the direction of the active use of e-government services by the rural population of Russia based on the identification and analysis of the needs of the population and emerging problems. The materials of the study were the results of the Federal statistical observation on the use of information technologies and information and telecommunication networks by the population of Rosstat for 2018 and 2021. It was noted that the COVID 19 pandemic not only contributed to the increase in the activity of rural residents in using e-government services, but also exacerbated the existing problems. The paper analyzes the regional features of the dynamics of the share of the rural population using e-government services during the COVID 19 pandemic, defines the parameters that determine the dependence of the studied dynamics on factors that reflect both the quality of services provided in electronic form and the dynamics of the share of the population that refused e-government services for reasons for failure in regions with similar type-forming features. Six classification groups of regions have been formed that differ in the dynamics of the process of involvement of the rural population in the use of e-government services. The relationship between the dynamics of the use of state and municipal services in electronic form by the rural population and the dynamics of the level of satisfaction with the quality of the provision of these services in the regions of the Russian Federation, as well as the dynamics of the share of the population who refused e-government services for various reasons, was revealed. Based on the results obtained, state policy measures for regional authorities are substantiated, which can contribute to an increase in the share of rural users of state and municipal services in electronic form.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 13
Socio-cultural context of development of rural territories (local experience of interdisciplinary research
This paper substantiates the necessity and possibility of interdisciplinary synthesis of the achievements of information and communication theory, semiotics and institutional economics to study the dialectical interaction of socio-cultural dynamics and economic changes by the example of the study of the problem of sustainable development of rural areas. Based on the convergence of methodological approaches, an expanded interpretation of this problem is given, including a communicative-semiotic aspect. Based on the materials of long-term field research at the local level, the explanatory possibilities of interdisciplinary methodology are shown, as well as its potential for the theoretical justification of an effective strategy for the balanced development of local territories and the optimal adjustment of its implementation mechanisms, taking into account radically changing production, market, information and other technologies. Our local field studies of the interaction of socio-cultural factors and economic processes in rural areas have revealed a number of bundles of values, motives, stereotypes and norms of behavior developed by the relevant cultural environment and manifested in sustainably reproducible social practices that have a positive or negative impact on the functioning and development of rural communities in modern conditions. Within the framework of the article, we describe in more detail two of them, which most determine the readiness and ability of rural residents for effective and productive joint activities within the territorial community. The first bundle includes such indicators of socio-cultural maturity of the rural community as trust, honesty, responsibility and cooperation. The second is emotional attachment and commitment to a small homeland, a sense of duty to loved ones and fellow villagers, a willingness to come to their aid, to support those who take actions useful for the general well-being and take care of the preservation and prosperity of their native village.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 1
Neoindustrialization of agricultural production in Russia: economic essence and specifics of implementation
In the context of a massive sanctions policy against Russia by "unfriendly" states, the implementation of a new industrialization of the country's agricultural production is a key ideologeme of its effective functioning. The article presents a model of interaction between the state, science and business for the purposes of neoindustrialization of agricultural production. The economic essence of the new industrialization is revealed, which boils down to the transfer of the industry to an industrial basis, the creation of large-scale machine and robotic agricultural production with its corresponding provision (in the required quantity and assortment) with chemical means. It is established that the provision of agricultural producers with machinery, trailed machines remains at a low level. In this regard, in order to carry out neoindustrialization, it is necessary to stimulate the localization of the production of technical means, critical components, diversify the geographical import of machinery, equipment and components, and provide cheap credit for the development of their own machine-building industries. It is shown that the use of resource-saving technologies should be accompanied by an increase in soil fertility, taking into account the biological characteristics of varieties, hybrids of agricultural crops and animal breeds, which are associated with the use of optimal rates of fertilization and other means of chemicalization. It is proved that the decisive role in the neoindustrialization of agricultural production should belong to development institutions: JSC "Rosagroleasing", JSC "Russian Agricultural Bank" and agrobiotechnoparks created by the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 2
Implementation of the development strategy of the agro-industrial complex of the Donetsk People's Republic
The article discusses issues aimed at improving the effectiveness of the implementation of the strategy for the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Donetsk People's Republic in the current conditions of unstable economic conditions and new challenges associated with the geopolitical situation. The characteristic of the unsolved problem is given, which consists in the need to take into account in the implementation of the strategy of the functioning of the branches of the agro-industrial complex, and, in particular, those enterprises of agriculture and food industry that are in the territories liberated during a special military operation. Due to the increase in the population and the amount of cultivated land, the development strategy requires changes, taking into account both these factors and the goals and objectives aimed at ensuring food security and social guarantees of the citizens of the Republic. To assess the implementation of the strategy for the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Donetsk People's Republic and the achievement of results according to the indicated indicators, an analysis of the state of the industry and a comparison of the indicators actually achieved in 2021 with indicative ones were carried out. The analysis showed a slight deviation on the 23rd indicators. The largest number of deviations was revealed in the livestock industry. Based on the analysis, proposals have been developed to eliminate the identified deviations in the dynamics of key strategic indicators of agribusiness efficiency. Solving the problems outlined in the article within the framework of the development strategy will create conditions for the growth of key performance indicators for the long term, as well as implement previously planned tasks.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 3
Sustainable growth and innovative development of the Russian agro-industrial complex in the face of sanctions pressure from western countries
Now the agro-industrial complex is in the stage of active development, which was facilitated by appropriate measures of financial support from the state. Over the past 10 years, over 2.5 trillion rubles have been allocated to support the agro-industrial complex, 1.5 thousand projects have been implemented, 80% of which have reached the stage of serial production. At the beginning of 2022, according to the criterion of the value added that is produced in the agro–industrial complex, the country ranks fifth in the world ranking (4.4 trillion rubles) and seventh in terms of attracted investments. One of the main factors guaranteeing food security is the excess of food exports over imports. The import of agricultural raw materials has decreased 1.6 times over the past 10 years. For the first time in the last 30 years, by the end of 2020, exports of food and raw materials from Russia exceeded imports. One of the urgent problems remains the development of its own seed industry. There is still a high level of import dependence in animal husbandry on foreign genetic material. Currently, a wide range of state financial support for these agricultural sectors has been launched: incentive subsidies, short-term and investment concessional lending, compensation for direct costs of modernization and creation of seed and breeding centers. The main goal of the agro-industrial complex is to ensure sustainable growth of the agricultural sector by 3% per year, but in order to achieve such growth, about 1 trillion rubles must be allocated to the industry annually. The state has such funds, it is the National Welfare Fund, in which 11 trillion rubles are placed today, and export customs duties from the sale of agricultural products, which in the amount of about 2.5 trillion rubles annually go to the budget.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 4
Evaluation of the implementation of public-private partnership projects in agriculture of the Russian Federation
The article assesses the implementation of projects in the agriculture of the Russian Federation, implemented within the framework of partnerships, and in particular, the mechanism of public-private partnership. In the context of limited budgetary reserves, the implementation of infrastructure projects in agriculture imposes a certain burden on the economy of the country (region), which requires the activation of additional funds for investment, which can be executed by attracting private capital. In this regard, it is necessary to develop a set of measures aimed at improving the infrastructure of the Russian agro-industrial complex, the transition to advanced technologies and forms of agricultural production, and an accelerated approach to world achievements in this industry. Therefore, it is necessary to create modern innovative projects that will serve as the basis for ensuring sustainable socio-economic development and food security of the country. The solution to the issue of stimulating innovative activity in the agricultural sector should be the participation of the state and business on the principles of public-private partnership. At the same time, based on the cluster organization of production, it is possible to achieve a synergistic effect from the implementation of such projects. Based on such methods of scientific knowledge as synthesis, analogy, SWOT analysis, graphical analysis, generalization, the authors were able to assess the implementation of public-private partnership projects in the agrarian sector of the Russian Federation, on the basis of which to determine the constraints and prerequisites for the development of such projects in our country . On the example of an agrarian region - the Republic of Dagestan, a typical model of a cluster organization of a PPP project in the agro-industrial complex is proposed on the example of a fruit and vegetable canning cluster in the Republic of Dagestan. The conclusions should include the fact that public-private partnership can become an effective mechanism for organizing interaction between the state and business in various sectors of the economy, including agriculture.