Яндекс.Метрика

Organizational and economic mechanism of adaptation of agribusiness entities to new business conditions

The development of the organizational and economic mechanism for the functioning of various forms of agro-management is especially relevant in the new conditions of agribusiness, characterized by the intensification of integration processes, the formation and development of new technological structures, the deterioration of trade and economic interaction between Russia and foreign partners against the background of the aggravation of the geopolitical situation and the tightening of anti-Russian sanctions. The organizational and economic mechanism for the adaptation of agribusiness entities to new business conditions is considered by the author as a set of organizational and economic means and methods aimed at the activities of various forms of agricultural management at the federal, regional, municipal and economic levels of management in order to increase the efficiency of their activities, solve problems arising in the process of its implementation, increased technical and technological equipment and increased involvement in integration processes. The key principles of building an adaptation mechanism are: focus, complexity, innovation, consistency, scientific, adaptability, perspective, efficiency, parity, consistency, and realization of potential. The areas of improvement of organizational and economic elements of the mechanism include: stimulating credit, deepening and expanding integration with potential purchasing countries of Russian agricultural products, information, consulting and organizational support for agricultural goods producers, increasing the efficiency of processing products, developing logistics infrastructure, introducing progressive technologies into production and general growth of technical and technological equipment of the agricultural industry, etc. The author proposed a scheme for the joint use of agricultural machinery by farmers, determined the conditions necessary for forging an effective system of their information and consulting support, and formulated other recommendations for improving certain elements of the organizational and economic mechanism for adapting agribusiness entities to new business conditions.

Agricultural cooperatives and their role in the formation of specialized high-tech zones for the production of agricultural products

The spatial organization of agriculture traditionally contributes to the efficient placement, deepening of specialization and concentration of production. Optimization of spatial development of agriculture is associated with its effective management in each region of the country. It is most fully implemented in the formation and development of specialized high-tech zones for the production of agricultural products on the basis of cooperation. Agricultural cooperatives ensure the growth of incomes of commodity producers and workers in the area where they live, and are aimed at implementing long-term plans. In accordance with the current legislation, federal and departmental projects, agricultural cooperatives are formally granted the most favored nation regime. The growth in the number of consumer cooperatives is largely justified precisely by the possibility of receiving support from federal and regional budgets. The number of agricultural production cooperatives has significantly decreased. Domestic and foreign experience confirms the prospects of cooperation as a form of management for the sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas. The expansion of the sphere of activity of production and consumer cooperatives is limited by a number of factors, in particular, the issues of land shares are insufficiently regulated, modern legal norms do not fully reflect the specifics of cooperation. The development of cooperation in agriculture is associated with the growth of state support, the formation of cooperative consciousness, new organizational models of cooperatives.

Conceptual bases for increasing the innovative and investment attractiveness of agriculture in a municipal district

The article attempts to consider the conceptual foundations for increasing the innovative and investment attractiveness of agriculture in a municipal district, based on the ideas of the knowledge economy, where the costs of science and the results of intellectual activity play a significant role in creating innovations arising under the influence of knowledge flows. Based on the official data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation and its territorial body for the Novosibirsk Region, data from the registers of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "State Variety Commission" and the Federal Institute of Industrial Property as factors influencing the level of innovative activity of farmers, were considered: the state of agricultural science, the activity of patent holders and the level of use of breeding achievements in the Novosibirsk region. An analysis of the structure of internal costs for research and development by funding sources showed that the costs of agricultural science in the Novosibirsk Region for the period 2017-2021 decreased mainly due to a sharp reduction in the source of "own costs". Reducing the cost of agricultural science in the Novosibirsk region means a reduction in the amount of knowledge gained and opportunities to create innovations that arise under the influence of the flow of this knowledge, which ultimately reduces the innovation and investment potential of rural municipal areas that are in close geographical proximity to the centers of Siberian agricultural science . Features of the formation of the institution of intellectual property in agriculture were studied on the basis of data on the number patents of selection achievements and their use in the Novosibirsk region. The analysis showed a low demand for Novosibirsk patents in the region and the lack of mutual interest of science and farmers in concluding license agreements and maintaining them. A clustering of rural municipal districts of the Novosibirsk region according to their innovative and investment attractiveness is proposed.

Vertical integration and intersectoral development of agro-industrial production in the Irkutsk region

Modern agro-industrial production is at a stage of development at which there is a change in the model of social production through an increase in the share of production of products of deep processing and a decrease in the share of production of agricultural raw materials. There is a transition to a post-industrial model of the development of society. One of the main tasks in this regard is to increase the efficiency of intersectoral development, within which it is necessary to maintain a balance in the development of agro-industrial production. The main factors stimulating manufacturers to develop other areas, in our opinion, are internal, such as the search for the most effective ways to sell products with high profitability of sales, the implementation of their own development investment programs, and external, for example, the implementation of government support programs. All this contributes to the development of vertical integration processes, which become a necessary condition for the intersectoral development of agro-industrial production. In this regard, there is a need to focus efforts on further effective intersectoral development of such areas as infrastructure (creation of conditions for storage, transportation and delivery of products to the end consumer in the shortest possible time and with an appropriate level of quality), as well as the scientific sphere (creation of conditions for the development of scientific developments in the field of production of raw materials, their processing, packaging, disposal and recycling). It is necessary to direct all efforts to the improvement of technologies, mechanization and automation of production processes in all areas in order to reduce losses, increase the degree of workload of tools and objects of labor and reduce the negative impact on the environment.

Sustainability of the contribution of the regions to the development of the meat cattle industry

The article is devoted to assessing the dynamics of the rating of the regions of the Russian Federation by livestock. The purpose of the study was to determine the sustainability of the positions occupied by the regions in terms of livestock in 1990 and 2022, as the growth rate of cattle affected the change in the rating of regions. Assess how high the growth rate of cattle affected the change in the rating of regions. Methods of logical analysis and statistical data processing were used as research methods. The assessment of the stability of the ranks of the region was carried out using the Spearman coefficient. The assessment of rank correlations showed that the high positions of the region in the number of cattle in 1990 affect the position of the region in 2022, the rank correlation coefficient was 0.74. Also, the assessment of rank correlations indicates that the position of the region in 2022 depends on the rank of the region in terms of the growth rate of the livestock. At the same time, the assessment of the strength of the connection between the ranks of regions calculated by the livestock for 1990 and the ranks of regions by the growth rates of the livestock in 2022 compared to 1990 for various categories of farms showed that for all categories of farms the consistency of ranks is 0.12, the indicator is not statistically significant at the level of 0.05. The regions, which in 1990 occupied high places in the ranking of regions of the Russian Federation for cattle livestock, retain their rather high positions, at the same time; the growth rate of cattle livestock does not affect the preservation of these positions. Those regions that in 1990 occupied not very high positions among the regions of the Russian Federation in the number of cattle, due to the high growth rate (or the safety of the cattle) were able to significantly change their positions in 2022.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 11

Theoretical aspects of efficient production of organic crop products

Development of the organic crop industry is promising in the context of promoting a healthy lifestyle, preserving human and breed-resource potential. The theory of the industry progress is based on several theories and concepts. Among them the concept of sustainable development (Maslow's pyramid of needs in conjunction with the theory of growth limits by D.N. Meadows and the development of the noosphere (anthrop sphere) by V.I. Vernadsky), V. Pareto's optimality theory (optimal alternatives), competition theory and chains of creation values ​​of M.E. Porter, the theory of the process approach, the concept of the product life cycle. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the identification and generalization of the theoretical foundations of the industry formation, the identification of the principles and functional affiliation of the indicators of the effective organic crop production and the identification of promising areas for improving its efficiency. An analysis of the structure of organic crop production in the Russian Federation identified priority crops for growing that are in demand in the corresponding market segment and revealed a trend to expand the range of organic crop production throughout the Russian Federation. Directions for increasing the efficiency of organic crop production are focused on achieving the identified indicators in accordance with their functional affiliation. Obtaining a high level of economic indicators is possible due to the cumulative effect of the implementation of energy and technological ones: an increase in the number of introduction of agricultural innovations, saving production resources by reducing the cost of production, increasing the quality of organic products, maintaining and improving the image of agricultural production ensured by the efficient use of land resources, increasing productivity by product types. Social and environmental indicators are highlighted in the study as fundamental, as they are focused on improving the standard of living and maintaining the natural and ecological balance.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 12

Formation of stable grain cluster associations of the region

The growing need to improve the economic efficiency of the grain product subcomplex at the regional level in the context of micro zones sets new tasks for the territories, primarily related to the choice of a competitive strategy for the development of the regional economy, which makes it possible to maximize the use of the existing potential The procedure for selecting micro zones of the core of the grain product cluster was carried out by statistical methods of ranking the sum of places and rating on average for the period 2016-2020.in terms of the volume of commodity grains and legumes in physical terms. Studies have identified five agglomerated micro zones of the region with a total share of the regional grain market of 89.21%. The average value of the rating of agglomerated microzones ranges from 1.8 to 3.8 points. The calculated optimal “range” of the confidence interval of the “degree of stability” of municipalities reaches the following ranges: from 3.10 to 7.88 points, agglomeration areas with a stable degree of stability (include 7 right-bank and 7 left-bank municipalities); from 2.08 to 2.94 points are agglomeration areas with a relatively stable average degree of stability (includes 1 right-bank and 4 left-bank municipalities), from 1.07 to 1.88 points are agglomeration areas with a weak degree of stability (includes 2 right-bank 3 left-bank municipalities). The grain product cluster did not include areas from among the agglomerated micro zones with an average value of the share of sale of grains and legumes less than one. In accordance with the results of the observations, one can note the system-forming role of the areas recommended to be included in the core of the cluster. Agricultural enterprises that are part of the regions of "stable stability" as part of the cluster formation of grain specialization can form up to 67.5% of the regional product and provide jobs for up to 3265 people.