Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 6

Development of the logistics infrastructure of the export-oriented grain cluster of the region

The results of the functioning of the grain-product subcomplex of the region for a long period of time set new goals and objectives that give the basis for the formation and development of an export-oriented cluster. The objects of the study were organizations of the transport and logistics infrastructure of the industry: elevators (including water), warehouses and their technical base, loading and unloading platforms of railway transport; flour mills. The paper characterizes changes in the scale, methods and geography of export activities from 2019 to 2022, as well as export-oriented investment projects implemented on the basis of public-private partnership to increase trade turnover with foreign buyers. It is noted that the mechanism of grain-product subcomplex export is developing in a "catch-up" type: the region does not have enough elevators and rolling stock to transport products, complex logistics leads to additional costs, problems of the commodity infrastructure are identified and characterized. The advantages of the functioning of an export-oriented cluster under the management of a specialized organization are substantiated, which will lead to an increase in the cost of international contracts due to an increase in prices, a reduction in transaction costs, and grain transportation along the Volga. The presented performance indicators of flour mills in the context of the urgent task of increasing the sale of products with high added value stimulate the search for new solutions in the field of improving management approaches to operation. The scientific novelty of the work is embodied in the proposed organizational and economic mechanism for the development of an export-oriented cluster of grain-product subcomplex of the region, which contains a system of subjects with scientifically-based development directions and management facilities with their potential. It includes elements of development in the form of processes and methods, as well as indicators of development results for assessing the state and dynamics.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 7

Improving measures for the development of infrastructure for the reproduction of human capital in agricultural production

The study examines the main directions for improving existing measures to support the social infrastructure of rural areas, the development of which is an essential component of ensuring the reproduction of human capital. The support measures taken are large-scale, implemented in specific projects of improvement and construction of infrastructure facilities by regional authorities. Noting the importance of the work being carried out, it has to be stated that the formation and implementation of state programs solves the tasks of improving the overall improvement of settlements and are not focused on solving the problems of ensuring the livelihoods of agricultural workers. Moreover, they are not focused on the task of attracting young specialists to the countryside, who are carriers of new sought-after competencies in modern high-tech agricultural production. The purpose of this study is to study the issues of infrastructural support for the reproduction of human capital, which require a study of the prevailing living conditions in rural areas, an assessment of the level of saturation with social services, and an analysis of the effectiveness of government regulation measures. To achieve this goal, the study uses statistical analysis of data on living conditions in rural areas, collection and study of financial indicators for the implementation of state rural support programs, surveys and expert assessments of the causes of the outflow of rural labor resources. To clarify the focus of measures to support the infrastructural development of the village, it is proposed to supplement the existing criteria for the selection of landscaping projects with indicators that take into account the improvement of the quality of life of agricultural workers and the participation of entrepreneurs in the implementation of these projects - the author proposes to change the scoring system of these project parameters. It is also necessary to supplement the personnel planning system of agricultural enterprises with an analytical block for assessing the need for infrastructural support for the life of the attracted workforce, which allows clarifying the composition and structure of measures to create conditions for the development of human capital.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 8

Economic assessment of crop cultivation technologies in conditions of high price volatility

Economic criteria, along with indicators of soil fertility, are a priority in the choice of technologies for cultivating crops. To a large extent, they depend on the volatility of prices for means of production and agricultural products and involve the prompt economic assessment of crop cultivation technologies based on scientific research data and up-to-date economic information. The efficiency of the economic assessment is provided by the corresponding web application and a database of enlarged standards of costs for technological operations. The economic assessment of technologies for growing permanent spring wheat and crops in crop rotations (steam–wheat – wheat – wheat; corn-wheat-peas-wheat; steam – wheat – soy – wheat) in various weather conditions in the period from 2012 to 2022 shows that with the prevailing prices for means of production and crop production, prices of 2023 in various weather conditions during plowing and surface tillage, with and without fertilizers, the most efficient production in the crop rotation is steam – wheat – soy – wheat. Of the two methods of tillage (plowing and surface) in arid conditions, the productivity of crop rotations and permanent wheat was 19-30% higher on plowing, the profitability was 11-36 percentage points higher. In average and favorable weather conditions, crop yield on plowing remains higher, but the difference between treatments decreases to 3-12 percentage points.. In this case, at lower costs, the profitability of the surface treatment technology is higher by 2 to 34 percentage points. The economic efficiency of using fertilizers at existing prices turned out to be low, especially in dry years. The cultivation of non-replaceable wheat in dry periods, both with fertilizers and without them, is unprofitable (profitability on plowing -25%, on surface treatment - 30%). The use of fertilizers leads to an increase in losses: at a dose of 20 kg – up to -31%, at a dose of 40 kg – up to -35 – -39%. In crop rotations, profitability is mostly positive, but with the use of fertilizers in unfavorable periods, it also decreases by 6–38 percentage points. The conducted economic assessment indicates the need to expand the area of crop rotations with soybeans and surface tillage, study and use more effective ways of applying fertilizers.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 9

Trends and factors of sustainable development of dairy farming in the context of digital transformation of agriculture

The article analyzes the trends in the development of dairy farming in the Russian Federation and the North-West Federal District from 2005 to 2022. The analysis of changes in the structure of milk production in the context of producer types is carried out. The increased differentiation of dairy farming development between milk producer types in the Russian Federation and the North-West Federal District has been revealed. Priority state support for large investment projects in dairy farming has accelerated the development of innovative technologies, growth of dairy productivity, and gross milk production. Milk producers in the regions of the North-West Federal District, the Non-black earth region of Russia as a whole, face the problem of meeting the requirements of an increased effective scale. The cessation of milk production by family farms, household plots small and medium-sized enterprises leads to milk production localization of, dairy farming fragmentation in the regions, strengthening of territorial differentiation of agriculture development as a whole. The complex development of digital technologies, the digital transformation of agriculture has an additional impact on increasing the effect of mass production, strengthens the process of concentration in dairy farming. At the same time, digital transformation creates potential opportunities for the development of farms with medium and small size of milk production based on the maximum adaptation of production scale to local agro-climatic and production-economic conditions. The implementation of local competitive and comparative advantages is able to ensure the competitiveness of milk production with a smaller scale of production in regions with limited rental potential, regions of "risky farming". The relevance for the formation of a targeted organizational mechanism for dairy farming digital transformation to overcome effect derived from path-dependence, the wide integrated development of digital technologies by small and medium-sized milk producers is increasing.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 10

Rural local economy: classification of municipal districts according to the level of development of rural non-agricultural small and medium-sized enterprises

Issues of diversification of the rural economy due to the declining agricultural employment and the need to maintain a balanced spatial development of the country, remain of acute concern. Particular attention has recently been paid to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the basis of the rural local economy. However, until now the role of rural small and medium-sized businesses, including those employed outside the agricultural sector, in the economic development of municipal districts, as well as the differences in the level of development of these SMEs across the country, and not a separate region, remain almost unexplored. The article, based on SPARK-Interfax data, which accumulates information from Rosstat, Rosreestr, Federal Tax Service and other official sources, proposes a classification of municipal districts according to the contribution of non-agricultural small and medium-sized enterprises (NSMEs) to the revenue of district enterprises – 4 classes of districts are identified, characteristics of classes are given, including indicators of efficiency, productivity and remuneration of rural SMEs employed outside the agricultural sector. It was revealed that rural non-agricultural SMEs predominate in both the number and revenue of rural SMEs, although large enterprises still make the main contribution to revenue. In 26,2% of districts, the contribution of rural SMEs to the revenue of district enterprises exceeded 50%. With the increase in the contribution of rural SMEs to the revenue of enterprises in the region, a growth trend is observed in terms of revenue and profit from sales per employee, capital productivity, and a reduction in debts per ruble of revenue. The data allowed for classification only on the basis of legal entities registered in municipal districts. For more complete further research, it is necessary to improve the databases of the Federal Tax Service and Rosstat in the direction of providing data in the context of the actual location of economic entities by type of settlement, including financial and economic indicators for individual entrepreneurs.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 11

Sustainable agriculture as a priority in the fight against poverty and improving the quality of life of the rural population

The relevance of the article is due to the need to create conditions for sustainable agricultural development, as the most important direction of state policy to ensure the country's food security and one of the necessary conditions for improving the quality of life of citizens and reducing poverty. In his Address to the Federal Assembly of February 20, 2019, President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin noted that... "the key, long-term factor in sustainable agricultural growth, of course, should be an increase in the quality of life of people who work in the countryside». In a broad concept, the quality of life includes quite a few aspects. This is the health on which a person's life expectancy depends, his nutrition, the quality of education, cultural and spiritual satisfaction with life. The growth of income and wage disparities between urban and rural areas is more concentrated in agriculture and rural areas. This restrains economic growth in the agro-industrial complex and gives rise to such a negative phenomenon as poverty. The decline in agricultural production in recent decades has negatively affected the quality of life support of the rural population, which is significantly lagging behind the urban level. At the same time, this problem of the Russian village is observed in the presence of large resources. Agriculture will not be able to develop without consolidating people in the countryside and without a competent and consistent state policy, which should solve the triple task "Sustainable agriculture - High standard of quality of life in the countryside - Reducing rural poverty".

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 12

Modernization of public administration tools for the formation and development of non-urbanized territories of the Russian Federation

The article deals with the problem of modernization of public administration tools for the formation and development of non-urbanized territories of the Russian Federation. Given the complexity of the socio-economic conditions of these regions, as well as their potential for sustainable development, the development of effective management tools is an important task. The purpose of the study is to develop proposals and recommendations for the modernization of public administration tools to support the development of non-urbanized territories of Russia using preferential regimes. In the course of determining the purpose and solving the tasks of the scientific research carried out, the author developed a model of strategic planning for the sustainable development of non-urbanized territories and proposed the institute of regional partnership, emphasizing the importance of creating a balanced municipal management system based on an integrated approach, taking into account the specifics and features of non-urbanized territories. This will make it possible to effectively apply preferential regimes and ensure the sustainable and high-quality development of these territories. The results of the analysis confirm that the application of preferential regimes in the non-urbanized territories of Russia contributes to the improvement of their socio-economic development. However, for effective management of such territories, it is necessary to take into account the diversity of approaches and characteristics of each region, as well as to focus efforts on coordinating regional management and developing balanced development strategies. The proposals and recommendations developed in the course of the study can contribute to the development of more effective mechanisms for stimulating the development of non-urbanized territories, as well as optimizing the use of preferential zones in Russia. The obtained data and recommendations will be useful for government agencies, regional authorities, investors and all interested parties working in the development of non-urbanized territories.

Structural transformation of accumulation and consumption in agriculture for the purpose of its neoindustrialization

The article is devoted to the problems of structural transformation of accumulation and consumption in agriculture for the purpose of neoindustrialization. The authors analyze intermediate consumption in agriculture. The article emphasizes that costs in agriculture are growing at a high rate, and in their structure the share of expenditures on material resources of production is increasing, which is largely due to the faster growth rates of prices for purchased industrial goods compared with changes in prices for agricultural products. As a result, the share of intermediate consumption in the agricultural sector increases and the share of gross value added decreases. In addition, a number of factors remain that negatively affect final consumption, including the low level of wages in agriculture, as well as the deviation of nominal savings and consumption from their real content due to inflationary processes. The authors note that at present in Russia there is a low share of gross accumulation in the economy as a whole and in agriculture (with an insufficiently effective structure of investment investments). As a result of the study, the authors identified the main negative trends that affect structural changes in accumulation and consumption in agriculture at the present time: underfunding of investments in real assets from own and borrowed sources, training and attracting highly qualified personnel to the agricultural sector, imbalances in price relations in the agro-industrial complex aggravating structural deformation. To overcome these trends, it is necessary to switch to a new model of sustainable development of the agro-industrial complex economy, which assumes an initial increase in the share of accumulation in order to move to a new technical and technological level with subsequent expansion of production volumes, growth of GVA and final consumption. Proposals for structural transformation in consumption and accumulation are aimed at achieving the technological sovereignty of the country and ensuring neo-industrialization in the agro-industrial complex.

Digital ecosystem as a tool for reducing transaction costs in agriculture

The agricultural sector is undergoing a digital revolution with the widespread introduction of new technologies such as big data, artificial intelligence and robotics. These technologies have the potential to transform farming practices, leading to increased productivity, efficiency and sustainability. However, the digital revolution is also creating problems for small farmers. The introduction of modern agricultural technologies is due to the availability of financial resources and the level of education. Small farmers in rural areas are disproportionately disadvantaged in this regard, as their access to infrastructure, networks and technology is limited. In addition, the growing concentration of the agricultural sector in the hands of large companies is displacing small farmers. One way to help small farms adapt to the digital revolution is to develop digital ecosystems. Digital ecosystems facilitate the exchange of data and resources between small farmers, suppliers, processors and retailers. As a result, farmers have the opportunity to increase their productivity, reduce transaction costs and gain access to new markets. The article considers a domestic example of a digital ecosystem in agriculture – the digital ecosystem of the Rosselkhozbanka "Svoe". The platform unites small farmers, suppliers and buyers of products. The system allows farmers to access information about the market and competitive prices, as well as manages their supplies and sales. In general, for the successful transformation of agriculture in the digital age, it is necessary to pay attention to small farms and provide them with access to digital technologies and investments. The development of digital ecosystems can become one of the key factors in this process.

Efficiency of economic mechanisms of state support of agricultural commodity producers

State financing of measures aimed at supporting agricultural producers should be effective and ensure the proper level of food security of the country. Due to objective circumstances, the mechanisms of state support used from 2013 to 2022 were subject to changes, which affected the amount of funding, the degree of impact on the economic mechanism and, consequently, on agricultural production. The actual result from the implementation of mechanisms presented in the framework of state support of the agrarian sector of the economy casts doubt on the effectiveness of the tools used in subsidizing agricultural production.. The study is based on the hypothesis of the low level of influence of state support on the gross value added of agricultural commodity producers due to the instability of the applied mechanisms of state support and volumes of state support of the agricultural sector. To confirm this hypothesis, the article presents the results of the analysis of the impact of the amounts of state support on the value of gross output in comparable prices and gross value added both by functional groups, in general, and by industries and individual areas related to modernization and introduction of innovations, etc. The paper presents the main evidence that allowed to confirm the stated hypothesis. Based on the results of the study, the main principles that should be in line with the mechanisms of state support of crop and livestock production, as well as support for areas related to the modernization of agricultural production and the development of science and innovation were identified.