The problem of providing the population of fruit and berry products and solutions to them

The acute problem of providing the population of Russia of fruit and berry products. The actual consumption of fruit is 62 kg per capita per year at scientifically determined norm of 100 kg. In the food basket of Russians the share of imported fruits is 72.2 per cent. Import fruit for 2000-2016. increased from 5.7 to 6.5 million tons In the article the analysis of development of horticulture in the Russian Federation. For the analyzed period the gross yield of fruits increased from 10.8 to 16.3 million tones as a result of increasing yields while reducing the area of fruit and berry crops. The main fruit producers are households. In 2016, their share accounted for 74.4‰ of the gross harvest of fruits and berries. Justified by the volume of fruit production and the main directions of its increase. To ensure that the population of fruit on the rational nutritional standards, their production must be brought to 10320 thousand tons (excluding grapes and fruit not grown in our country). The area of orchards and berry plantations should be increased from 517 to 895 thousand hectares, including area in Mature, fruit bearing age from 410 to 760 thousand hectares. Expansion of fruit production will contribute to the improvement of the state support of gardening and the increase in its size, its concentration in specialized farms, the revival of industrial horticulture, intensification of the industry, the development of agro-industrial integration. The proposed mechanism of regulation of production and economic relations between participants of the integration.

Effective development of the food industry of siberian federal district on the basis of improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism

One of the most important directions of development of agro industrial complex of Russia is the food industry. The main tasks of strategic development of the industry focused on the development of sustainable national food market, the development of deep processing of agricultural raw material based on latest technology, exit to the world food market and win a worthy place on it. However, there are a number of internal and external factors that have a negative impact on the development of food industry of the Siberian Federal district. The strategic goals of the sector is possible only with improvement of organizational and economic mechanism. Organizational-economic mechanism of effective development of the food industry is a system, comprising closely interacting elements of organizational and economic nature. It includes the organizational structure, functions, methods and economic mechanism of management of the effective development of the industry, the purpose of which is to increase the economic potential of the food industry, its competitiveness, development of strategies for export and import substitution. It is also necessary the development of government regulation at the sub national level. On the basis of the conducted researches the basic directions of perfection of organizational-economic mechanism of food industry. Proposals for the creation of a fundamentally new directions of state regulation of the food industry on the sub-national level: the establishment of a focal point for the development of food industry of the Siberian Federal district, Siberian Association of exporters of food and agricultural raw materials, Interregional center for international certification of food products, the formation in the Siberian Federal district network of product distribution of organic products.

Experience of comecon when forming the market of scientific and technical products of agro-industrial complex of russia

The development of integration processes became widespread both in economic and in scientific-technical activities. The article describes the experience of scientific-technical cooperation between several countries on the example of the Union of mutual economic assistance in the period from 1949 to 1991, the forms of such cooperation, including in agriculture, as well as the documents on which it was carried out. The possibility of applying this experience in the light of the advantages and disadvantages when forming a common market of scientific and technical production in the participating countries of the Eurasian economic Union, created in 2015. Experience in scientific-technical cooperation of the member countries of the Council for mutual economic assistance may become a methodological base for building a common market of scientific and technical products of the member countries of the Eurasian economic Union. Constructing mutually beneficial economic and scientific ties should plan for a joint scientific research by the participating countries, harmonization of legislation on science, innovation, intellectual property, equal exchange of scientific results and the establishment of mutually beneficial conditions for the sale of scientific and technical production between the two countries, organization of joint technological platforms or clusters, with the goal of not only disseminating information about scientific developments and also their introduction into production.

Restriction of the size of subsidies to one agricultural producer: need, mechanisms, consequences

In article the problem of restriction of the size of subsidies to one recipient and influence of such decision on growth of agricultural production is considered. The conclusion is drawn that policy concentration of subsidies creates exclusive competitive advantages to the largest producers and leads to replacement of small and medium business, reduces efficiency of branch. Subsidies to agricultural producers for the last 25 years concentrated in separate major agricultural firms and agro holdings of Russia more and more. Among other agricultural producers the share of those who didn't receive anything or received very insignificant state support grew. Such agrarian policy of the state promoted creation of exclusive advantages to the separate large companies, concentration at them the huge areas of the earth, to the accelerated replacement from the agrarian market of medium and small business. Around the world in agricultural production this business has priority development thanks to the state support rendered to him. The large business which isn't getting such support is forced to work under the contracts with small business, contributes to his development, relies on him, but doesn't ruin. The network organization of business in agrarian and industrial complex promotes his diversification, the solution of environmental problems, fast building of a share of the separate companies in the market of end products. Legislative restriction of the size of subsidies to one recipient is universal practice. The lack of such restrictions in the Russian legislation, according to the author's hypothesis, constrains development of branch. On the basis of the carried-out calculations the author shows that many small investment subsidies allow receiving more considerable gain of production, than small quantity of big subsidies. A conclusion of the author will be coordinated also with the general theory of the state support of agriculture focused on the decision not only economic problems of branch but also sustainable social development of the village.

Methodological approaches to determining the economic efficiency of the use of natural fodder lands

The article deals with the role, importance and problems of increasing the economic efficiency of the use of natural hayfields and pastures of the Central Non-Black Soil Zone of the Russian Federation in the reproduction of the forage base on the basis of factors determining the productivity of the land, the nutritional value of the products (feeds) obtained, and the minimum labor and fund expenses on its unit in modern conditions. The grassland economy acts as a strategic direction for its intensification and more economical development of dairy-beef cattle breeding. The central Non-Black Soil Zone of Russia has necessary economic potential for the solution of the mentioned task. At the same time, the current state of the grassland economy is such that it does not provide animals in sufficient quantities with quality roughages, succulents and pasture (green) fodders. The main reasons for this situation are: insufficient material and technical, labor and financial providing unsatisfactory orientation of the use of natural hayfields and pastures, land reclamation disorder, radioactive contamination as a result of the man-made disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The importance of scientific, technical and technological support, innovative and organization-economy and other factors in solving the fodder problem has been shown. The methodological and methodical approaches to the analysis of the efficiency have been clarified taking into account specificity of the forage base development on the natural lands. The issues of developing the integrated programs for the development of feed production, including grassland economy, creating of dairy and fodder clusters and rational organization economy mechanism for managing the production system and use of feeds have been considered.

The ecologic and economic development of agrarian and industrial complex: state, efficiency, account

Agriculture is in environmental crisis - declining natural fertility of the soil and hence the shortage of grain. The increasing pace and magnitude of land degradation in the country has led to a reduction in only 90 years 6.5 ‰ of arable land. To overcome the negative trends in agriculture it is advisable to have a Program of greening, including: erosion control, application of organic fertilizers, agro forestry, cultural-technical land reclamation, fodder grass cultivation in order liming kitty, small, soil, biological methods of protection, crop rotation, clean fallow, accelerated development of industrial and domestic agribusiness. For implementation of the Ecological program it is necessary to create an appropriate system of market regulators (benefits, credits, taxes, etc.) for changing priorities in the allocation of resources, capital investments in agriculture. All stages capital cycle (money, productive, commodity) should be directly related to the process of preservation and reproduction of natural resources used. Source of information for determining ecological-economic efficiency of agricultural production are statistical data production and financial plan, the environmental pass -port, technological cards, accounting and statistical reporting, regulatory reference materials. Accounting environmental accounting is not regulations - based legislation, there is no standard governing accounting for the costs of environmental measures and rational environmental management. Based on the fact that the environmental damage caused it can be assessed, it is necessary to expand the interpretation of the concept "accounting environmental accounting". In environmental accounting statements of an enterprise should reflect not only the cost of nature protection actions, environmental payments and penalties for violation of environmental legislation, but also the damage caused by the enterprise to the environment.

Improvement of investment policy in agriculture of siberia in modern conditions

The problems of investing in agriculture of the Siberian Federal District caused by the reduction of state support, lack of credit opportunities and decrease of the own financial funds of agricultural organizations have been considered. The average annual rate of the investment decline in fixed capital of AIC of the SFD for the period of 2011-2015 was equal to 97.7‰. The modern agrarian policy is aimed at encouraging the large-scale industrial production but the greater part of the available land and production resources of the medium-sized and small-scale forms of managing is not efficiently used under the implementation of measures on import substitution. The decision of these problems requires the improvement of the current investment policy at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation (that are federal in scope) including the stimulation of inflow of investments in the priority sub-sectors of agriculture and enhancing the state support of small and medium-sized agribusiness. In order to overcome the consequences of the investment switching in agriculture of the Siberian Federal District and to further intensify the agro-industrial production it is necessary to increase the growth rate of fixed capital investment in agriculture up to 8-10‰. The mechanism of usage of the limited investment resources should be formed in view of the specific features of the region in order to determine the growth points and the priority of their investment.