Organizational and economic conditions of specialization and concentration of production in livestock production

Increasing the production of livestock products requires the development of effective organizational and economic mechanisms for managing livestock enterprises that increase production and increase the competitiveness of manufactured products. One of the key factors for the effective development of the industry is the rational use of available production resources, natural-climatic and organizational-economic factors. The purpose of the study was to determine the features of the territorial and sectoral division of labor in animal husbandry and the theoretical and methodological justification for the optimal conditions and factors for the distribution and specialization of livestock enterprises. The research used abstract-logical, economic-statistical and computational-constructive methods of investigation. The empirical basis of the study was the official data of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. To assess the impact of specialization and concentration of production capacities on the efficiency of livestock and livestock production, an analysis was made of the functioning of the industry in the regional context and the features of the organizational and production structure of agricultural commodity producers. It is established that the share of the ten regions of the largest producers falls in 2012-2016 account for 34.1‰ of the total milk volume and more than 40.0‰ of the total volume of livestock and poultry for slaughter. The greatest effect from the intensification of the industry due to technological modernization and introduction of resource-saving technologies is noted in the sector of agricultural organizations. In a number of regions with a high level of technological development of dairy cattle breeding facilities and production concentration, a stable positive growth rate of animal productivity has been achieved. The lack of an effective system for locating productive capacities in livestock breeding reduces the industry's resistance to negative changes in the domestic market and macroeconomic factors. The conducted analysis of the current state of the industry made it possible to establish and systematize the main conditions and factors for the efficient allocation of livestock enterprises, which makes it possible to effectively use optimization and specialization factors.

Substantiation of the forecast parameters of cattle breeding development in the amur region

The study of the prospects for the development of livestock breeding in the regional scale should be based on an assessment of the trends in the change in the number of cattle in farms of different categories and the justification of the size of a herd of cattle. Given the limited number of agricultural organizations developing cattle breeding, it is proposed to develop a regional program for their development, in which it is necessary to justify the economic feasibility of keeping a livestock in each of them, taking into account the prospects for their possible reconstruction and their social significance for specific rural settlements. Significant differentiation of peasant (farm) farms and individual entrepreneurs by the number of cattle necessitates the development of various group strategies for their development. There is a steady tendency to reduce the number of cattle in private households with the growth of its concentration. According to the forecast calculations in agricultural organizations of the Amur Region with a herd of more than 500 animals by 2025, 96,5‰ of the total number of livestock in farms of this category will be concentrated. According to peasant (farmer) households, the projected increase in the number of cattle by 2025 is expected at 1300 head. Reduction of the number of cattle in the households of the population from 2015 to 2025 is expected from 46600 to 41100 heads. If the current trends in the structure of the herd, the dairy and meat productivity of cattle are preserved in the region, the Amur region will be able to increase the production of both milk and beef in the future.

Factorial analysis of profit and profitability of grapes production

Various factors exert impact on financial results from production and realization in agriculture. Assessment of influence of these factors consists in definition of degree of efficiency of their use that is very relevant. In this regard search of reserves of increase in profit and profitability is one of the major tasks in any sphere of business. For carrying out the factorial economic analysis various methods and ways are used. A research objective is to analyse the influence of factors on change of the sum of profit and level of profitability of production of grapes and identification of reserves of their increase. The research is performed on materials of Tyatlyar agricultural firm of the Republic of Dagestan. It is revealed that 98,3‰ of gross profit are got from realization of grapes which depends on four factors: volume of product sales, its structure, prime cost and average level of the prices. Calculation of influence on the sum of profit and level of profitability of production of grapes is carried out by method of valuable substitution and way of proportional division. Results of the factorial analysis have shown that increase in profit on realization of grapes it is generally caused by growth of the average realizable prices (+15220 thousand roubles). Due to the increase in prime cost of a unit of production the sum of profit has decreased by 13152 thousand roubles. Level of profitability of production of grapes has increased by 0,97‰, including for 23,39‰ in connection with increase in prices and has decreased by 22,42‰ due to growth of prime cost of a unit of production. For increase in production efficiency of grapes and financial results from his realization a number of measures, the branch, to attract investments, to enhance its competitive properties, and as a result, stability allowing to intensify is offered.

Foreign experience of development of local governments by agriculture in interrelation with public administration

The current state of systems, models of management and regulation at the state and economic levels and also experience of interaction of interaction of the government with local government of the leading agro-industrial countries (the USA, Germany, France, England, Italy, China and also agrarian and industrial complex of Republic of Belarus) at the municipal level is considered. The comparative analysis has shown that models of interaction of bodies of federal and local managements in the different countries have both certain similarities, and fundamental differences. Organizational structures and methods of management of agriculture at the level of local government and their functioning are given. The important role of state regulation of agricultural production and its influence on local governing bodies with use of various economic levers is noted: financial dependence of local bodies; regulation of activity by production quoting; developments and financings of various target programs; establishments of the supervising or supervising functions and introduction of some types of the reporting. The provisions of foreign experience recommended for use in the Russian control system of agrarian and industrial complex, use of some economic, organizational and other mechanisms in the sphere of municipal agro-industrial complex are formulated. Restoration of a vertical of hierarchy at all hierarchical levels and strengthening of responsibility for results of activity is necessary. Creation of section on coordination of activity of local self-government institutions and associations (unions) of agrarian producers is expedient

Issue № 1, January 2018, article № 2

Import substitution in agriculture: overproduction crises, choice of institutional policy, application of behavioural economics

The policy of import substitution showed the first results in the agricultural production sector. Despite the economic growth in the agricultural production sector, the problem of rational allocation of resources and choice of the optimal production structure has been outlined. Weak awareness of market actors about the volume of production of certain types of crops, product prices creates situations of uncertainty in which the decision-making process of producers can not be optimal. It is necessary to determine the options for providing producers of agricultural products with information on the volume and structure of production, which is possible both in the framework of the Pigouvian and Coasian directions of institutional reforms. The article shows options for implementing both directions, gives examples of the successful implementation of institutional reforms, and also suggests to depart from the concept of rationality in decision-making by actors in favour of limited rationality and libertarian paternalism in the spirit of the behavioural economy in accordance with the ideas of the Nobel Prize winner in economics R. Thaler (2017) and his predecessors, G.Simon (1978), T. Schultz (1979), D. Kahneman (2002). The article uses the methodology of institutional analysis and behavioural economics to determine possible directions of influence on decision-making by agricultural producers in order to ensure the most efficient production structure, a balanced distribution of income and avoid overproduction crises for individual crops.

Issue № 1, January 2018, article № 3

System and reproduction methodology of assessment and forecasting of development of agrarian economic system

In article methodological and methodical questions of agrarian economic system development are considered. A research object is social and economic system, questions of assessment of functioning of its organization, a determination of interrelation of factors and results of production, an assessment and forecasting of development of economic system. A subject and an object of all economic researches is process of reproduction of economic system which consists from technological social, ecological, economic and organizational and administrative subsystems. Functional subsystems express the maintenance of economic system, and the organizational administrative sphere is a form of its functioning Assessment of functioning of economic system is connected with a need of more effective using of production potential. Assessment and forecasting of development of the agricultural organizations are carried out on the basis of their classification by profitability on profitable and unprofitable. The comparative analysis of work of the organizations for classes will allow to define the objective and subjective reasons of current situation. System and reproduction forecasting needs to be carried out on fields of activity that will allow to direct objects of management, to define the directions and volumes of investment activities. Methodological questions of the analysis of interrelation of technology factors and production efficiency are considered (prime cost, profit, profitability). Methodical provisions of determination of possible dynamics of development of the organizations on the basis of the comparative analysis of their production economic activity are proved. Content of imitating modeling of the economic mechanism of development of the organization for justification of the directions of an intensification of production reveals.

Issue № 1, January 2018, article № 4

Directions of formation of the institutional environment of innovative development of agriculture

The formation of the institutional environment of innovative development of agriculture, providing food security of the country, is caused by the change of paradigm of socio-economic development, occurring in the agrarian sphere of modern Russian society. The institutional environment of innovative development of agriculture helps to ensure a favourable investment climate, attraction of innovations and the creation of favourable conditions for life and work in rural territories, development of human and social capital. The use of modern innovative equipment and technologies in agricultural production, demographic trends and age-related structural changes of the rural population contribute to the need to ensure agricultural production with highly qualified personnel. Social transformation and institutional changes associated with the formation of new institutions in the sphere of agricultural production, promote the emergence of effective infrastructure elements of the economy. Sustainable development of agriculture is provided by the organic interaction of the institutional environment and the institutional matrix of socio-economic systems, when institutional changes are subject to the basic institutions of society. The result is the harmonization of social development of rural areas and innovative development of agriculture, preservation and enhancement of natural resources. The creation of institutional environment for innovative development of agriculture, promotes sustainable growth of regional agro-industrial complex on the basis of the system development strategy with the direct participation and support of the state. On the example of agricultural enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan shows that the factors of the institutional environment, the organizational forms of agricultural business, human and social capital, and innovation to achieve systemic effects, the preservation and reproduction of natural resources and improving the efficiency of agriculture.