Яндекс.Метрика

Consideration of scale effect in the improvement of the strategy of grain farming development

Целью исследования является формирование направлений, позволяющих улучшить стратегию развития зернового хозяйства. В качестве важного фактора, определяющего эффективность производства зерносеющих организаций, исследуется влияние эффекта масштаба, отражаемого размерами посевных площадей и величиной затрат на производство. Основным методом анализа является группировка, согласно которой зерносеющие организации области распределены по кластерам, а показатели, характеризующие в среднем каждый из них, сопоставляются между собой. В качестве основных показателей, по которым выполняется сравнительная оценка результативности и эффективности производства зерна, использовались: выручка, прибыль, затраты на производство и урожайность, определяемые в расчете на 1 га посевов зерновых, а также рентабельность продаж зерна. В исследовании подтверждено, что эффект масштаба значительно влияет на эффективность производства зерна. Наиболее эффективными кластерами зернопроизводителей в 2014-2016 гг. в Курской области являлись крупные хозяйства с посевной площадью зерновых от 4 до 8 тыс. га и от 8 до 16 тыс. га, при этом самые крупные зерносеющие организации региона гораздо менее эффективны, что свидетельствует о наличии ограничений эффекта масштаба. На основе полученных результатов анализа сформирован ряд приоритетных направлений регулирования и поддержки развития производителей зерна.

Directions of improving competitiveness of an oil and fat sub complex

The agricultural market of Russia as a whole and the market of oil and fat sub complex in particular from year to year is required to maintain a high competitive position, because in recent years there has been a positive dynamics of expansion of acreage of oilseeds, oil and fat business, import of vegetable oils and the conquest of the Russian domestic market from near and far abroad. The article made a rapid assessment of the state of oil and fat sub complex, reflects the main factors affecting the formation of the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises, the grouping of functional and sectoral factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises of oil and fat sub complex, as well as the analysis of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of oilseeds. The authors conducted a comprehensive analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the process of production of oilseeds, and revealed the components (activities) that enhance their economic efficiency. The article proposes and justifies measures aimed at solving the current problems of competitiveness and effective development of fat-and-oil sub complex with a reserve for the near future. The most significant, according to the authors, are the economic, financial and production components of the micro-and macro - level, including the profitability of production and processing of oilseeds, the timely introduction of innovative technologies for the production of oilseeds, technical modernization of enterprises in the field of storage and processing of seeds on the terms of state funding programs and concessional lending to agricultural enterprises of oil and fat sub complex.

Issue № 12, December 2018, article № 10

Inevitable transformation of economy of the forest sector

In this article, the definition of the term “forest sector” is being given; the article also provides analysis of the comprehensive research behind it, research allowing drawing up an accurate picture of the current state of the world’s forest sector. The main goal of the study is to highlight the inevitability of the transformation of Russia’s forest sector given the new understanding of the roles of forests, forest resources, forestry, forest management, timber processing and timber trade in the world’s economic system. The world community recognizes the crucial role of the forest sector in the regulation of climate change. It is clear that while oceans have a more prominent role in absorption of carbon dioxide than forests have, humanity cannot regulate oceans’ input into the absorption of greenhouse gases, yet it is possible to regulate the input of forests into the greenhouse gases absorption. This article concern problematic legislation, attempts to divide the forest-managing responsibilities between the Federal and regional authorities, unreasoned financial and economic relations. Revision of the legislative acts administering the forest managing in densely populated regions of Russia is not connected to the realms of economy and the current state of human capital in lowly forested regions of Russia Thereafter, scientific research in theory of forest sector economics is needed. The research has to be comprehensive, start with the evaluation of basic criteria of forest capital, costs of ecosystem and social services provided by forests, include evaluation of the cost of forest resources together with the findings in the area of costs of all types of silviculture, forest management and transportation of forestry products