Issue № 12, December 2023, article № 10

Methodological Framework for the Study of Sustainable Rural Development in Rural Agglomeration

The article is devoted to methodological aspects aimed at the sustainable development of rural areas and the study of ongoing processes in agglomeration conditions. The economic feasibility of creating a rural agglomeration is justified by obtaining an agglomeration effect. A model is proposed, which is based on indicators confirmed by statistical data characterizing the economic entities of the rural area and taking into account the data obtained in the conditions of the agglomeration. This is the basis for building a basic regression model, taking into account the dynamics of indicators, using the least squares method, without changes in the integration process. The development of rural agglomerations presented by the model is based on advantages containing positive integration changes. The obtained data indicate that when creating and developing agglomeration, the response of growth as a result of changes is unidirectional. To assess the effectiveness of rural agglomeration, factors affecting the final result are identified, the direction of management actions that increase the overall efficiency of management is determined and a system is built that allows for sustainable socio-economic development. Based on the above, we conclude that the built regression model, taking into account the dynamics of the development of changes in the inertial phase, using the least squares method, will make it possible to establish the orientation of management actions that ensure the sustainable development of rural areas as part of the rural agglomeration. Building a Behavioral Model Outside of Integration

Issue № 12, December 2023, article № 11

Entrepreneurial activity of rural population in the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation: trends and problems in development

The article assesses the state of entrepreneurship development in rural areas in the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. Global trends, increased competition in the food market, increased sanctions "wars" and limited access to innovations of economic entities of the Russian Federation require the transformation of the system of support and training of entrepreneurs for the rural economy and its basic branch of agriculture. This is due to the need to apply innovative technologies and identify areas of diversification of the rural economy with an active key role of entrepreneurs, and the commercial and non-profit organizations created by them. The main trends in the development of large corporate and individual entrepreneurship, non-commercial forms of management in the rural territory of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation are revealed. The reasons for the reduction of business entities in rural areas of the region are investigated. The factors of entrepreneurship activation contributing to the prevention of further compression of rural space have been identified. The conclusion is made about the high importance for rural development, activation of endogenous and exogenous aspects, interaction of factors and institutions at all levels of state economic management. There is a need for the development of small forms of management in agribusiness, diversification of the rural economy in order to ensure employment of the able-bodied population in other areas: tourism, services, folk crafts, and small industrial production, technical and household services.

Issue № 12, December 2023, article № 12

Opportunities and barriers to sustainable development of agriculture in the BRICS countries

The BRICS countries are playing an increasingly important role in the global economy, including in the global agri-food market. Brazil, Russia, India, China are the leading agricultural producers. South Africa plays an important role in the regional agri-food market. Agriculture forms not only the basis for food security, but also, in a broader sense, the living conditions of the population, as well as the quality of the environment. One of the priority areas of interaction between countries within the BRICS framework is to ensure food security at both the regional and global levels. At the same time, different geographical, natural-climatic, socio-economic conditions of the BRICS countries cause differences in the priority areas of agricultural development, and also create a diverse potential for achieving food security and moving towards sustainable development of agriculture of the entire association. The relevance of the study is due, among other things, to changes in geopolitical conditions in recent years and the need to reorient the role of BRICS in the global food market. In 2022, 82% of the supply of agricultural products came from friendly countries. Supplies to China and India have increased significantly. The article identifies the global challenges facing agriculture in the BRICS countries, and also formulates the objectives for the development of sustainable agriculture. As a result of the analysis of the geographical, demographic and socio-economic conditions of the BRICS countries, global and national challenges to agriculture were identified, and directions for joint policy in the field of agriculture were formulated. Special attention is paid to the possibilities of international cooperation in order to overcome certain barriers, for example, the “dark paradox”.

Strategic indicators for the development of the agricultural sector of the Rostov regiont

The article presents strategic indicators for the development of the agricultural sector of the Rostov region, taking into account industry priorities for the medium-term (2025-2027) and long-term (2028-2030) period. The strategic indicators include the main types of agricultural products: grain, sunflower, sugar beet, vegetables, potatoes, milk, varieties of all types of meat, eggs, the increase in production volumes of which will ensure the formation of the agro industrial pole of Russia in the region. The information and analytical base of the study was the indicators of agricultural production in agricultural and peasant (farmer) farms, including individual entrepreneurs, for the period 2008-2021. The justification of the strategic indicators of the production of the main types of food was carried out according to two key scenarios: inertia and target – depending on the volume of financing of the industry from the federal and regional budgets. Our calculations have shown that in the medium and long term, agricultural organizations will focus in crop production on increasing the production of the least labor-intensive types of products: grain, sugar beet and sunflower, in animal husbandry, high growth rates of production volumes will be provided due to the development of the pig industry, the restoration of poultry in large agricultural formations, state incentives to increase livestock meat breeds. The long-term trend in the development of peasant (farm) farms will be associated with the development of meat and dairy cattle breeding, as well as the increase in the production of industrial and grain crops, potatoes and vegetables. In general, strategic guidelines for the development of the regional livestock industry in agricultural organizations and peasant (farmer) farms require a rethinking of the directions of state support.

Conceptual provisions on improving the management of innovation development of the agro-industrial complex of Siberia

The article discusses the issues of improving the management system of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex. Special attention is paid to the innovative development of the agro-industrial complex of Siberia. To this end, the analysis of the level of innovative development of Russia and Siberian regions was carried out, the possibilities and directions of increasing the innovative activity of participants in the innovation process in agro-industrial production were evaluated, formulated the conceptual provisions of managerial influence that stimulate and ensure the innovative development of the agro-industrial complex. The main conceptual provisions that can be applied at all levels of government in the Siberian and other regions of the Russian Federation with appropriate adaptation to their specifics include the following. The management system for the innovative development of the agro-industrial complex should be based on a cognitive-systemic approach, taking into account a set of factors and using appropriate elements of the management mechanism. In order to make effective management decisions, it is necessary to develop an information and communication system that provides operational information to management bodies on a set of indicators on existing innovations, accessible to the maximum number of participants in agro-industrial clusters. Priority in innovative development should be given to domestic developments, digitalization of relevant areas and spheres of activity, and raising the level of human capital of all participants in agro-industrial clusters. To activate innovative activity, state, public-private and private-state support is necessary based on the proportions of financial and other assistance to the innovative activity of organizations agro-industrial complex, stimulating participants to innovative, educational and other activities necessary for this, creating small innovative enterprises and collective centers for scaling effective innovative solutions, providing information and consulting services for producers of all forms farming in the agro-industrial complex, including farms and private farms, which in a number of Siberian regions play a significant role in the production of agricultural products. The elaboration of these areas by the relevant management bodies, taking into account the peculiarities of each Siberian region, will allow to activate the innovative activity of commodity producers and other participants in the innovation process interested in the development of the agro-industrial complex.

Development of domestic horticulture based on digitalization

Currently, digital technologies are being introduced into many areas of economic activity. Horticultural enterprises are complex objects, and their digitalization is not an easy process. However, with the successful introduction of digital technologies, these farms achieve high efficiency. The article provides a review of the opinions of various scientists regarding the development of these technologies in horticulture. An analysis of the dynamics of fruit and berry production in the context of regions of the Russian Federation made it possible to identify a significant contribution to the all-Russian production of the North Caucasus and Southern Federal Districts, in which during the period 2010 -2021 there was a significant increase in the gross harvest of fruit and berry plantings, which was facilitated by favourable conditions for these cultures, natural and climatic potential and state support. It has been established that the increase in yields for most fruit and berry crops in the country is due to an increase in the area of intensive gardens growing high-yielding early ripening varieties, for the planting of which government subsidies were allocated. The systematization of the main directions of digitalization of horticulture and the examples of the technical means of domestic production used in this case led to the conclusion that this area is widely developed in the country and the great possibilities of Russian science, the developments of which are successfully introduced into horticultural farms. The main obstacles to the active digitalization of horticultural farms, most scientists consider the prevalence of households in the structure of production with limited resources, the lack of qualified specialists, low purchasing power of consumers, as well as the need to increase state support for both fruit and berry producers and developers of innovative technologies.

Communication of cognitive model tools with digital modeling of the land relations system based on big data and machine learning

One of the main circumstances that necessitated the development of a method for harmonizing tools and mechanisms of fuzzy cognitive models with digital modeling of land relations in the agricultural sector was the inadequate role of institutional economics in the developing world – the fight against narratives is fraught with restraint of inertial development. Against this background, the possibility of convergence of institutional and neoclassical economies in order to ensure economic growth without shocks from possible narratives is substantiated. The common features of the two methodological approaches to the regulation of land relations on the basis of: the theory of fuzzy sets (cognitive modeling); digitalization of land relations with the use of machine learning. The place (fields, space) of their communication and interaction is determined. The structure and content of the method of coordination in terms of initial information, basic tools and results of these two methodological approaches have been developed. A scheme for the functioning and coordination of analysis mechanisms and the results of institutional and digital models has been formed. The author's fuzzy cognitive model for institutional regulation of land relations has been developed. The content, formation and description of the machine learning process for a digital land valuation model is substantiated. The mechanisms of interaction and exchange of initial information and results of two different types of models are revealed. The possibility of using the created models as a platform and connecting to them the data of the distributed register of agricultural land using the "Blockchain" technology for institutional and parametric regulation of land relations against the background of the land valuation process is substantiated

Transformation of the organizational and economic mechanism of economic activity in the product subcomplexes of the Agroindustrial Complex of the North Caucasus Federal District

The organizational and economic mechanism is the basis for the functioning of the production chain with food subcomplexes of the agro-industrial complex and has its own specifics. With the development of digitalization, which is actively advancing in all areas of agroeconomics, the organizational and economic mechanism of the agro-industrial complex is also undergoing changes. Transformation based on digitalization of production and other economic processes is an inevitable way of development and improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism, as it is directly related to the change of all relationships, and is the reason for the transition to a different qualitative state. The article examines the difference between digitalization and digital transformation in agroeconomics, examines the changes occurring in various parts of the organizational and economic mechanism under the influence of digitalization processes. The work uses methods of generalization, logical and comparative analysis, empirical and logical scientific approaches to the study of the set goal. The research is based on scientific and analytical works of domestic scientists, specialists, materials of various analytical publications, online content. The study identifies the processes that need to be leveled and that hinder the introduction of digital technologies of the agroindustrial complex today, suggests directions in the field of state regulation, which, by comprehensively affecting all links of the organizational and economic mechanism of the agricultural enterprises of the agricultural subcomplex of the NCFD agroindustrial complex, will lead to qualitative changes not only in the production sector, but also at all levels of management, thereby increasing the efficiency of enterprises.

Mechanism of formation of export-oriented agro-industrial associations of cluster type in the region

In the current conditions of the new sanctions reality, the problem of the transfer of Russian enterprises and regions to the innovative stage of development has become relevant, which makes it necessary to focus strategic management on the intensification of intraregional interaction mechanisms in order to increase their investment attractiveness. Clusters can act as such a form of interaction. Today, active clustering processes are already being observed in the agro-industrial complex, however, of the many registered cluster projects, only a few are being implemented in practice. The key barriers to the widespread distribution of clusters are: methodological shortcomings, irrational separation of powers at the public and private levels, imperfection of the regulatory framework, lack of a single mechanism for regional integration processes based on clustering. The purpose of the work was to propose mechanisms for creating export-oriented cluster-type associations. The authors used monographic, abstract-logical and computational-constructive methods. As a result of the conducted research, the basic elements of organizational and economic mechanisms for the formation of an export-oriented cluster in the region were identified and structured on the platform of identified agricultural, processing and marketing enterprises with high export potential (participants of the protocluster), corporate programs of international competitiveness developed to ensure financing of export projects (insurance, banking services, export credits) by including in the institutional environment of the cluster servicing satellites (supplying organizations of educational, financial, credit and insurance spheres), coordinating structure (specialized organization of the cluster - the Center for Cluster Development). The paper also proposes a mechanism for strategic and operational management in agro-industrial cluster associations. The application of the developed mechanisms for creating cluster-type structures will ensure convergence of the interests of participating enterprises, harmonization of their production and commercial interactions, optimization of costs and commodity circulation processes, which, in turn, will lead to a significant reduction in the cost of production.

On the issue of efficiency of agricultural investment

Ensuring the sustainable development of the country's agri-food system requires a significant increase in investment not only in agriculture, but also in the modernization of the food and processing industries, the development of rural areas, environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. An analysis of investment in the agricultural sector indicates the instability of the dynamics of investments in fixed assets, a decrease in the share of investments in agriculture in the total investments in the country's economy to 3.7%, the food industry - to 1.3%, investments aimed at environmental protection in agriculture - to 0.8%. There is a significant differentiation of the regions of the Russian Federation in terms of investment concentration. The limited volume of investments imposes increased requirements for their effective implementation in the agro-industrial production, while the analysis of the effectiveness of investments should be carried out in a comprehensive manner with the assessment of not only the efficiency of investment in production, but also the assessment of the innovativeness of investments, the impact of investments on the development of rural areas and the preservation of the environment. The need to increase investments in the development of agricultural technologies on an innovative basis by expanding the practice of venture investment and the use of PPP (MPP) mechanisms in the modernization of agro-industrial production, as well as investments aimed at environmental protection in the agricultural sector, and sustainable socio-economic development of the village, taking into account the principles of responsible investment, is substantiated.