Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 11

Theoretical aspects of efficient production of organic crop products

Development of the organic crop industry is promising in the context of promoting a healthy lifestyle, preserving human and breed-resource potential. The theory of the industry progress is based on several theories and concepts. Among them the concept of sustainable development (Maslow's pyramid of needs in conjunction with the theory of growth limits by D.N. Meadows and the development of the noosphere (anthrop sphere) by V.I. Vernadsky), V. Pareto's optimality theory (optimal alternatives), competition theory and chains of creation values ​​of M.E. Porter, the theory of the process approach, the concept of the product life cycle. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the identification and generalization of the theoretical foundations of the industry formation, the identification of the principles and functional affiliation of the indicators of the effective organic crop production and the identification of promising areas for improving its efficiency. An analysis of the structure of organic crop production in the Russian Federation identified priority crops for growing that are in demand in the corresponding market segment and revealed a trend to expand the range of organic crop production throughout the Russian Federation. Directions for increasing the efficiency of organic crop production are focused on achieving the identified indicators in accordance with their functional affiliation. Obtaining a high level of economic indicators is possible due to the cumulative effect of the implementation of energy and technological ones: an increase in the number of introduction of agricultural innovations, saving production resources by reducing the cost of production, increasing the quality of organic products, maintaining and improving the image of agricultural production ensured by the efficient use of land resources, increasing productivity by product types. Social and environmental indicators are highlighted in the study as fundamental, as they are focused on improving the standard of living and maintaining the natural and ecological balance.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 12

Formation of stable grain cluster associations of the region

The growing need to improve the economic efficiency of the grain product subcomplex at the regional level in the context of micro zones sets new tasks for the territories, primarily related to the choice of a competitive strategy for the development of the regional economy, which makes it possible to maximize the use of the existing potential The procedure for selecting micro zones of the core of the grain product cluster was carried out by statistical methods of ranking the sum of places and rating on average for the period 2016-2020.in terms of the volume of commodity grains and legumes in physical terms. Studies have identified five agglomerated micro zones of the region with a total share of the regional grain market of 89.21%. The average value of the rating of agglomerated microzones ranges from 1.8 to 3.8 points. The calculated optimal “range” of the confidence interval of the “degree of stability” of municipalities reaches the following ranges: from 3.10 to 7.88 points, agglomeration areas with a stable degree of stability (include 7 right-bank and 7 left-bank municipalities); from 2.08 to 2.94 points are agglomeration areas with a relatively stable average degree of stability (includes 1 right-bank and 4 left-bank municipalities), from 1.07 to 1.88 points are agglomeration areas with a weak degree of stability (includes 2 right-bank 3 left-bank municipalities). The grain product cluster did not include areas from among the agglomerated micro zones with an average value of the share of sale of grains and legumes less than one. In accordance with the results of the observations, one can note the system-forming role of the areas recommended to be included in the core of the cluster. Agricultural enterprises that are part of the regions of "stable stability" as part of the cluster formation of grain specialization can form up to 67.5% of the regional product and provide jobs for up to 3265 people.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 13

Expоrt and import potential of the fish farming and fishing industry of the Russian Federation

The article discusses the role of the fish farming and fish industry in ensuring the country's food security, which served as a theoretical prerequisite for developing a scientific vision of the problem of forming and improving the export-import potential of this industry in Russia. The purpose of the study was to identify the advantages of the export potential of Russian companies in the fishing industry and determine the conditions for the formation of fish imports to comply with the requirements of the country's food security. The study used the methods of the process approach and dialectical links in the development of the fish market to determine trends in supply and demand for fish products; based on the calculation of growth rates and time series, a downward trend in natural volumes of marketable fish was revealed with an increase in the money turnover of fish exports. The relevance of the study is due to the need to improve existing approaches to the implementation of the export-import potential of the country's fishery complex. The scientific novelty lies in the formation of scientific approaches to determining the export-import potential of the fish farming and fish industry, in accordance with which a forecast of the dynamics of exports and imports of fish is formed. The results of the study showed that the growth of fish exports in monetary terms depends on the growing consumer price index for Russian fish products, an increase in export customs duties and fees levied when cargo passes through the customs border. Additionally, the article analyzes export-oriented investment projects of fishing companies and develops a grouping of projects in the context of regional segmentation.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 14

Ensuring sustainable development of rural areas based on the transformation of social infrastructure for children on the example of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic

The article is devoted to the issues of achieving sustainable development of rural areas by improving its social component. The social aspect of rural development is fundamental to ensuring the long-term development of rural areas. It is the development of social infrastructure facilities that lays the foundation for the sustainability of rural areas through the formation of high-quality human capital. The necessity of improving the social infrastructure to ensure sustainable development of rural areas is substantiated. The results of a study of the effectiveness of the functioning of social infrastructure facilities in rural areas of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and ways to improve the activities of objects of social significance, depending on the level of their formation, are presented. The level of development of educational, health and cultural facilities in rural areas of the KBR in the context of municipalities was assessed and a rating of municipalities by the level of development of social infrastructure was compiled. The institutional tools currently used by the state to improve the socio-economic condition of rural areas are considered: the Concept of Sustainable development of rural areas, National programs "Education", "Health Care", "Culture", etc. In addition, the effectiveness of the implementation of the presented state programs for the development of social infrastructure is calculated now and taking into account the proposed measures that determine the sustainability of rural development of the KBR.

Issue № 10, October 2023, article № 15

The quality of life of the population in the ESU-model of economic development of rural territories of the Republic of Bashkortostan

It is able to analyze the quality of life of the population of rural areas in the context of the ESG model of automatic development. The analysis of the main factors shaping the living conditions of the population on the basis of statistical data was carried out, a subjective assessment of residents of external factors of vital activity was carried out, and the experience of managing the quality of life in regions where there is an increase or preservation of the population of villages was studied. The importance of state measures is determined, including the development and implementation of programs to support and develop rural areas on the example of several regions – the Udmurt Republic, Perm Krai and Samara Region, in which the positive impact of implemented measures is noted not only on living conditions, but also on population growth. It is concluded that in the Republic of Bashkortostan, according to statistical data, there is an annual decrease in the number of rural population, living conditions are characterized by insufficiently developed infrastructure, relatively high unemployment and poverty, low income, as well as, according to the residents themselves, characterized by low provision of financial and material resources, in areas with high development of mining and the oil industry also has environmental problems. At the same time, according to the authors, the regional measures currently being implemented to support rural areas will have a positive impact, including on the quality of life of the rural population. The study of the quality of life of the rural population and its management is proposed to be carried out from the perspective of the Gez model of economic development, which includes environmental, social and managerial criteria for sustainable development of rural areas and provides an integrated approach to solving socio-economic problems of economically vulnerable territories.

Current demographic situation and Russia’s food security

The results of the All-Russian Population Census showed that the rural population continues to decline and is aging rapidly, and the proportion of the working-age population decreased from 59.2% in 2010 to 55.7% in 2021, despite the expansion of the working-age boundaries. The number of rural pensioners employed in the economy is 900 thousand people. In addition, not all citizens are ready to work in agriculture. This is evidenced by the high percentage of graduates of universities and secondary vocational educational institutions who are not working in their specialty. Consequently, resources for replenishing, and even more so expanding the number of workers employed in agriculture among the rural population are very scarce. This suggests that the current demographic dynamics may become a serious limitation in the development of agriculture and ensuring the stability of the country's food market. The only demographic factor that has a positive impact on the development of the agricultural sector is international migration. This dictates the need to adjust the state migration policy and develop a set of measures to attract and consolidate foreign labor migrants in rural areas of the country. To solve the problem of the shortage of highly qualified personnel, it is proposed to introduce a planned distribution of graduates of agricultural educational institutions who have been trained on a budgetary basis. During the period between censuses, such a factor of maintaining the stability of the food supply system, which is directly related to demographic dynamics, as the production of agricultural products in the households of the population, which is associated with the aging of the population and the lack of effective mechanisms for the purchase of agricultural products and infrastructure for its storage, has significantly weakened. This dictates the need to develop a set of measures to stimulate small–scale commercial agricultural production, for which it is proposed to use the experience of Poland.

Trends in the development of robotics for agriculture abroad (on the example of UAVs and unmanned tractors)

The purpose of the study is to analyze the development of robotic technologies in agriculture and forecast the technical performance of certain types of agricultural robots (or agrobots). The current stage of development of agriculture in the world's leading countries includes wide application of robotics to increase productivity, provide food for the growing population of the planet, solve the problem of labor shortages, save materials and respect the environment. The coronavirus pandemic has closed borders and restricted movement for seasonal workers, eroding farmers' profits and jeopardizing food security around the world. This has further increased the focus on robotics as a key component of agricultural production. The agrobot market includes robots for weeding, sowing seeds, harvesting, unmanned tractors, agricultural drones, milking robots and others. In the article, the authors consider the agrobot market as a whole and its structure by individual types, methods of using robots and development trends of the main indicators of unmanned tractors and UAVs. For UAVs with different wing types, modifications of the main representatives of each type, most widely used in agriculture, are constructed, models of the dynamics of a number of absolute and specific technical indicators are constructed, and a complex indicator of technical complexity for UAVs with a fixed wing is calculated. According to the technical and economic indicators of unmanned tractors of the world's leading manufacturers given in the article, models of the price dependence on the main technical indicators of this type of robotics are built. The disadvantages and risks of using robotics in agriculture, which hinder the wider use of agrobots, are also considered.

Problems of building investment potential in the agricultural sector of Russia

The article deals with the problems of formation of the investment potential of agriculture, as well as issues of increasing the investment attractiveness of the industry. The investment potential is an integral characteristic of many indicators, among which the main one is the production and financial potential. One of the main factors in the growth of production potential is the development of investment activity and investment activity. At the same time, lending is a significant resource for investment growth. In the course of the study, a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of both absolute indicators of lending volumes (in the whole of the Russian Federation and in the regional context) and relative indicators was carried out, in particular, the dynamics of lending volumes per 1 hectare of sown area per 1 employed in agriculture was assessed, as well as the ratio of lending volumes and gross output received. The conducted studies have revealed significant regional differentiation in the development of lending and investment activities. Also, a set of factors was identified that negatively affect the development of lending, in particular: the lag in the dynamics of lending to agriculture from the growth in lending in the economy as a whole; concentration of credit and financial organizations lending to the agricultural sector of the country; insufficient economic and physical availability of borrowed resources; insufficient volumes of state support for concessional lending; extremely low volumes of investment in strategic areas, in particular, the creation and acquisition of computer software, as well as funding for research and development. Thus, in the context of implementing the tasks of ensuring technological sovereignty, the conclusion about the need to increase the investment attractiveness of agriculture based on the development of a set of measures to increase the investment potential of the industry is substantiated.