Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 1

Strategic guidelines for ensuring food security of the EAEU

The purpose of this study is to substantiate strategic guidelines aimed at the dynamic development of the EAEU countries, the realization of its advantages aimed at overcoming geopolitical barriers created by unfriendly countries. The study provides a thesis assessment of the main components of food security of the EAEU countries, which showed the lack of active interaction between the participating countries in ensuring food security of the EAEU, significant differentiation of income of the population, its purchasing power, rational norms of food consumption. The EAEU countries are united by a low level of investment in fixed assets of agricultural organizations and a relatively low level of state support, which do not contribute to a stable increase in gross output. In general, there is a lack of a coordinated agricultural policy aimed at collectively ensuring food security by realizing the advantages of the international division of labor. It is obvious that the implementation of the policy in the field of ensuring food security of the EAEU should be carried out not within the framework of fragmentary normative legal acts, but a comprehensive package of direct-acting documents regulating the implementation of state agrarian policy in the EAEU countries. One of such documents should be the EAEU Food Security Doctrine, for the subsequent implementation of which it is necessary to develop a strategy and program for the development of the EAEU agro-industrial complex. As the primary strategic guidelines contributing to ensuring food security of the EAEU, the study substantiates: the formation of legislation in the field of food security; the development of science and technology; increasing agricultural production, taking into account the purchasing power of the population and the possibility of exporting food with high added value; increasing investments in agriculture; infrastructure development; support for agricultural producers; development of export potential.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 2

Neoindustrialization of the Agricultural sector of the Russian Economy as a New vector of industry development

In modern economic conditions, the implementation of new industrialization in the agricultural sector of the country is a key ideology of its technological sovereignty, especially in the first and third spheres of agriculture. The article examines the positive and negative sides of the import substitution policy, as well as the processes of deindustrialization of domestic engineering. The main problems of the industrialization of the Russian economy, which occurred with a certain frequency, are analyzed: Tsarist (1891-1901, 1907-1913), Socialist (1928-1940) and new (2013-2014 and currently). It is concluded that it is possible to make the transition from the crisis state of agro-industrial production to the stage of its new industrialization only on the basis of accelerated development of scientific and technical activities with close cooperation of the state, science, business and full support of the regions. The main factors that have a direct impact on the implementation of industrialization in the country are revealed: financing, technology, equipment, IT personnel and personnel of working professions. It is indicated that the emergence of new development trends in the economy has led to a significant decrease in IT personnel in the labor market and, above all, engineers. The decrease in the workforce of working professions only for the period from 2014 to 2022 amounted to 37 percent. The necessity of improving the state policy is substantiated, the main strategic directions of which should be: personnel, industrial and spatial integration for the production of high-tech means of production. The paper proposes organizational and economic solutions for neo-industrialization in the agricultural sector of the country's economy, which are closely related to the transformation of a number of problems: a shortage of personnel in Russian industry, geographical difficulties in the production of high-tech products, underdevelopment of vertical integration, technological backwardness of domestic industries.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 3

Analysis of the required skills of veterinarians using associative rules

This article examines the historical stages of the development of learning associative rules and analyzes further prospects. One of the methods is used to determine the relationship between the skills and the level of remuneration of the veterinarian profession. For the study, the authors automatically collected data through the application programming interface (API) from the Heard Hunter website. There are identified patterns and estimates of the values of reliability and lift indicators using the method of associative rules. In particular, the authors identified the most in-demand skills: searching for information on the Internet, working with the cashier for vacancies with a proposed salary level of up to 45 thousand rubles. inclusive; focus on results and the desire to study in offers with a salary level from 45 thousand rubles to 70 thousand rubles inclusive. And in vacancies with the highest salary levels, the following are most in demand: analysis of the current situation, internal control, high stress tolerance and energy, diagnostics, the ability to resolve conflicts and disputes, work with objections, be an experienced user of a personal computer, also focus on results, planning and organization, in particular, sales planning, knowledge of poultry farming, interaction with key clients and other stakeholders, communication skills, workflow, B2B sales, commitment to self-development and enthusiasm. The result obtained will help labor market participants to focus on the skill sets necessary to obtain a given salary level. Job seekers will be able to assess their human capital and identify areas of knowledge for further improvement in order to increase the level of remuneration. The identification of associative rules has become possible due to the possibility of using open big data and the development of information technologies. The given example of calculations is the basis for further consideration and identification of associative rules for various professions and in various fields of activity.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 4

Russia's agriculture under foreign trade restrictions: modeling crisis scenarios

The consequences of the most crisis scenarios for the development of Russian agriculture in the conditions of obstacles to foreign trade from a number of foreign countries are studied. For this purpose, crisis scenarios are formulated, scenario modeling of production volumes, trade, prices and financial results of Russian agriculture is carried out under scenario conditions, and directions for minimizing risks associated with a probable increase in foreign trade restrictions are substantiated. It is established that on a horizon of 1–2 years, the main threat to the development of Russian agriculture within the framework of the studied scenarios is represented by barriers to exports, while the effect of reducing imports of agricultural machinery in the short term is not so dangerous. However, both of these effects tend to accumulate over time: in the absence of compensating counteractions, their negative impact on agriculture will increase. A decrease in exports leads to a drop in cash inflows from producers at a rate that exceeds the reduction in outflows, which can undermine the agricultural economy. The reorientation of resources for import substitution is complicated by the fall in domestic food prices and the specificity of assets. A reduction in the supply of agricultural machinery leads to a decrease in the volume of agricultural production and an increase in its prices. In this case, the incoming and outgoing cash flows of agricultural producers change downward proportionally, which allows agriculture to support the financing of current production costs and previously started projects. The combination of reducing imports of resources and barriers to exports leads to the mutual absorption of their negative impact on the welfare of domestic consumers, but not on the financial situation of agricultural producers.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 5

Reviews of budget expenditures on the agroindustrial complex

Systematic analysis of expenditures on agriculture, when comparing options for savings, allows to choose, taking into account three-year budget planning, with further implementation of priority financing of federal projects, such as the development of agrarian science and scientific support for the development of industries, competitive domestic AIC with its technical modernization, stimulation of investment activity and flexible regulation of agricultural export channels.AIC budget expenditure reviews are seen as a substantive and effective budget policy tool used to prioritize expenditures in favor of sustainable development. The practice of reviews in OECD countries is aimed at identifying internal reserves for optimization. The essence, objectives, functions, key differences, advantages, principles of budget expenditure reviews in the AIC, considering Russian and international applied practices, are studied. The dynamics of expenditures of federal projects and programs of the AIC and federal interbudgetary transfers in 2024-2026 is analyzed. The state, problems, needs specific to the financing of the industry, tax risks and peculiarities of tax agricultural policy, growth directions of the AIC are disclosed. The reviews help to identify low effects of budget spending. Long-term priorities of program development are outlined along the strategic trajectory of promoting innovative technologies, ensuring competitive environment, investment growth while reducing the unprofitability of agricultural producers. Stimulation of agricultural entrepreneurial output should be aimed, taking into account the implementation of comprehensive support measures and programs of financial recovery of producers, at achieving a 25% increase in value added of the domestic AIC by 2030 and 1.5 times in exports.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 6

Model for optimizing the supply of raw materials in vertical partner chains of the oil and fat subcomplex cluster in the region

The products of the oil and fat subcomplex of the Saratov region are successfully sold on domestic and foreign markets, and the level of its development allows us to set the goal of forming an agro-industrial cluster. Its objectives are to increase the competitiveness of manufactured products by reducing costs associated with production, movement and storage at specialized facilities, and one of the promising strategies is a rationally structured form of organizing inter-farm interaction between enterprises in various fields of the agro-industrial complex, forming vertical partnership chains for goods with high added value . The article examines the core of a potential cluster formation, which includes 381 agricultural organizations, 1068 K(F)H, 122 individual entrepreneurs, leading (three oil extraction plants (OEP) and one fat plant) and ordinary processors of raw materials, satellites are presented. It has been established that 99% of vegetable oil production in the region comes from food industry enterprises. Based on the analysis, the author's multifactor block model for managing supply processes between cluster participants has been developed, which makes it possible to build an optimal logistics system. The model allows, taking into account processing capacities, to determine the sequence, volumes and timing of supplies of raw materials directly from agricultural producers to oil extraction plants and the remaining products through elevators. The algorithm ensures optimization of the frequency of movement of batches and storage costs, including the cost of acceptance, shipment, transportation, processing, and drying. The model was tested at eight leading enterprises in terms of gross receipts, identified by the ranking method, one of which is located in the Right Bank, seven in the Left Bank of the region, five elevators and three oil extraction plants. The calculated results of the costs of goods distribution with the optimal option for building partnership relationships along the proposed supply chains showed a possible range of values from 252.4 to 222.8 million rubles. The author's idea can be applied in the development of clusters in other subcomplexes of the national economy and determining the effects of coordinated behavior of economic system entities in the formation of value chains.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 7

On state financial support for the production of poultry products

The article deals with topical issues of changing the state of production and marketing of poultry meat in Russia, analyzes and evaluates the volume of sales of poultry meat, price dynamics and profitability of this type of agricultural production. The relevance of the study is determined in the search for the most optimal solutions in the areas of formation and expenditure of budget funds of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation for the organization of their involvement by organizations of the poultry industry. The effectiveness of state financial support for poultry producers in Russia should be comprehensive and multidimensional, providing mutual benefits for both the state and the regions, investors, consumers and final recipients of subsidies. The purpose of the article is to consider the current state of state financial support for the production of poultry products, to identify promising areas for its improvement. The objectives of the study are to identify the processes of analysis and diagnosis of the state of production and consumption in the industry in order to prepare a methodological basis for the development of a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of measures of state support for poultry production. The analysis resulted in conclusions and facts reflecting the causal relationship between the state of declining efficiency of state support for the industry and the emergence of loss-making poultry farms. The rating of the Russian leading regions allowed us to form an idea of the regional potential of poultry meat production and export, taking into account the instability of the supply of industry products to foreign countries. The article emphasizes the role of assessment and analysis of budget expenditures for the organization of state support in the poultry industry. The opinion is formulated on the need to improve measures of state support for the production of poultry products. The author systematizes the methods and recommends microeconomic indicators of the effectiveness of state support for production in poultry farming organizations in Russia.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 8

State support as a factor in the development of potato and vegetable grow-ing in the open ground

The article examines the development trends and profitability of potato and open-ground vegetable growing in the Tambov region, substantiates the main directions of their development based on improving state support. The climatic and economic conditions of the region are quite favorable for the development of industrial potato and vegetable growing in the open ground. However, over the years of the implementation of the State Program for the Development of agriculture, potato production in the region decreased by 2,996 thousand tons, or 49.1%, and outdoor vegetables – by 416 thousand tons, or 33.4.8%. The decline in production is due to the low level of government support. Budget support for potato production amounts to 0.2%, vegetable production – 0.04% of total subsidies for crop production, and in relation to production costs - 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively. The implementation of the regional project "Development of vegetable and potato growing industries", which provides for an increase in budget support for open–ground vegetable growing by 12.5 times, potato growing by 8.2 times, will increase the production of vegetables and potatoes in agricultural organizations and farms. However, the budget allocations provided will not allow these industries to be transferred to an innovative basis. The further development of potato and open-ground vegetable growing will be facilitated by increasing and improving the mechanism of state support, the widespread use of innovative technologies for cultivating potatoes and vegetable crops, strengthening the storage base of products in places of production with budget support, the creation of agricultural consumer cooperatives for the storage and sale of potatoes and vegetables, the organization of specialized vegetable farms.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 9

Regulatory framework and analysis of the provision of tractors in the agricultural sector of the agricultural economy (based on the example of the Kaluga region)

The article provides an assessment of the actual availability of the tractor fleet of the agro-industrial complex of the Kaluga region, including peasant and private farms, personal subsidiary plots and MTS tractors.Based on scientific, methodological and regulatory documents, calculations of the standard requirement for tractors were carried out.The main indicators of the actual state of the tractor fleet are analyzed.Based on the calculations carried out, a shortage of tractors was identified in relation to the standard in terms of groups by traction force, both in conventional and physical units.It was revealed that the presence of wheeled tractors in physicalunitsmakes up 66.4% of the standard requirement, and tracked tractors make up 23.1% of the standard requirement.It was noted that in the agricultural sector of the agro-industrial complex of the Kaluga region there was a shortage of wheeled tractors in the amount of 959 units.and caterpillar tractors 303 pcs., or fl.units- 81.6 and 22.55%, respectively.It was noted that some farms refuse to use tracked tractors due to the lack of need for them, it is advisable to replace their number with wheeled tractors, the total amount according to the standard should be close to 10.11 conventional units.unitsIt has been established that the actual availability of tractors per 1000 hectares of arable land is in fl.units - 7.36, which is lower than the standard indicator (10.11 units) by 27.2%;in physicsunits- 6.9, which is 39% below the standard.The energy supply per 1000 hectares of arable land is 952.9 hp, or 78.6% of the standard (1212 hp).The average age of tractors is 2 times the depreciation period and is 17 years.The depreciation period is 63.4%, which indicates a high level of depreciation of the tractor fleet.

Issue № 6, June 2024, article № 10

Defining guidelines to ensure sustainable development of the Russian hop growing business

Sustainable development involves focusing not only on achieving goals, but also on the means of achieving them. Following the adoption of the UN Concept of Sustainable Development in 2015, many of the world's hop producers began the process of setting priorities and establishing methods for achieving long-term business sustainability. The work analyzes the approaches developed by the following large hop growing companies: HPA (Australia), HVG (Germany) and Hopsteiner (Germany / USA). First, companies identified key sustainability goals, followed by guidelines for ensuring long-term business sustainability. The principles are ranked and formed into matrices depending on the level of interests of interested external parties and the priorities of the company. HPA's key priorities include raw material supply, employee health and well-being and business relationships; for HVG - conducting more environmentally friendly agriculture, consolidating the German hop industry, creating fair value for the product; for Hopsteiner - issues of pesticide use, quality management, employee health and safety, and customer satisfaction. Hopsteiner's approach to defining sustainable development plans has broader boundaries and a maximum number of priorities - 27. When forming a matrix for Russian hop growers, the Concept of sustainable development of the Chuvash Republic, as a region - the main producer of hops in Russia, was used, as well as a survey of Chuvash farmers. The general key principles in achieving the goals of sustainable development of the hop growing business in Russia, both for external stakeholders and for the business entity itself, were the need to modernize the existing material base and organize constructive interaction between society, business and the state.