MODERN STATE OF THE AGRICULTURAL GRAIN INDUSTRY STAVROPOL TERRITORY AND WAYS OF ITS OPTIMIZATION
Issue № 5, 2023, article № 11, pages 83-91
Section: Agro-industrial market
Original language title: СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ ЗЕРНОВОЙ ОТРАСЛИ АПК СТАВРОПОЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ И ПУТИ ЕГО ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ
Abstract: The Stavropol Territory is one of the largest grain producers in Russia, where its per capita average in 2021 amounted to 2.32 tons/person, including 2.43 tons/person winter wheat. The success of the grain industry in the Stavropol Territory depends on a number of factors, including the nature of the political situation, state reforms, and is also largely determined by weather conditions, the volume of use of fertilizers, the ratio of grain prices and material and technical resources, etc. Thus, the greatest losses of the grain industry are associated with the Great Patriotic War, as a result of which the region received less than 9.1 million tons of grain in the period 1942-1955. Subsequently, significant damage to grain production was caused by the economic reform of the 90s, the total losses of which for 1994-2000 amounted to 7.1 million tons. Grain shortage associated with the revolution and civil war (1918-1931), it was estimated at 4.4 million tons, i.e. the negative consequences of the ill-conceived state reform in the Stavropol Territory were only 22% less than from the war with Nazi Germany and 61.4% more than as a result of the revolution and civil war. In the Stavropol Territory, with an increase in grain grain yields from 19.5 c/ha in 1981-1985, 26.2 c/ha in 1991-1995. to 37.2 c/ha in 2021, there is a sharp decrease in the profitability of grain production, which over the past thirty years has decreased from 142% in 1991 to 18-20% in 2005 and 2010. and seeks to 30% level in 2022. The main reason for the decline in the efficiency of the industry is the disparity of prices for grain and material and technical resources. This leads to the ruin of small farmers, the threat of curtailing grain production, and therefore food security, since it is the grain farm that is the leading factor in its provision, reducing the threat to Russian national security. To optimize the situation in the grain industry, it is necessary to adopt operational measures of state regulation, increase state support, establish equivalent prices that ensure expanded reproduction, modernization of the grain industry, including technical and technological, environmental and other aspects.