TRANSITION TO "SMART AGRICULTURE" IN THE INTERESTS OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN RUSSIA
Issue № 8, 2022, article № 4, pages 31-40
Original language title: ПЕРЕХОД К «УМНОМУ СЕЛЬСКОМУ ХОЗЯЙСТВУ» В ИНТЕРЕСАХ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ ПРОДОВОЛЬСТВЕННОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ РОССИИ
Abstract: The relevance of the topic of the study is due to the fact that agriculture, on the one hand, being a producer of food security, on the other hand, causes significant damage to the environment and natural capital, because in Russia up to now the economic activity in this industry has mainly extensive and resource-intensive nature. Purpose of the study: to present and describe the concept of "smart agriculture" (climatically and ecologically optimized agriculture), which can be implemented in the conditions of the Russian economy. The methodology of the study is based on the institutional-economic methodological approach, involving the analysis of big data of agricultural industry statistics, as well as the synthesis of recommendations on its regulatory and legal regulation and practical guidance of current changes. The article analyzes the dynamics of the Russian food security index in the context of its key components, including the environmental consequences of the industry. The formula of transition from extensive to "smart", i.e. climatically and ecologically optimized agriculture is described, which includes the following components: new understanding of sustainability, responsibility and productivity of agricultural activities; creation of a new institutional space for agricultural activities; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants; transition to resource-saving and digital technologies of energy supply, logistics, management. By the end of 2021 Russia ranked 23rd in the Global Food Security Index, but the efficiency and quality of use of natural capital to ensure food security cannot be recognized as acceptable. This is primarily due to the fact that the Russian agriculture functions as a resource-intensive one, which is not focused on replenishment of natural capital and compensation for the accumulated environmental damage. The concept of "smart agriculture" proposed in the article is capable of overcoming the described problems.